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China Facts & Figures Annual

Edited by Gary M. Bennett

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Contents of Volume 14 (1990)

I SURVEY xi

II SUMMARY OF SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC INDICATORS, 1990 xiii

III CHRONOLOGY xx

Map xxiv

IV GOVERNMENT 1

  1. Local Government in China's Administrative Structure 1
  2. Survey, 1990 2
  3. Chronology, 1990 2
  4. Chronology, Democracy Movement, 1990 3
  5. National People's Congress, Description 4
  6. Constitution and Government Structure 4
  7. National People's Congress, Leadership, 1990-1991 5
  8. Central Government, 1990-1991 6
  9. Commissions of the State Council, 1990-1991 8
  10. Ministries of the State Council, 1990-1991 10
  11. State Bureaus, 1990-1991 18
  12. Special Agencies of the State Council, 1990-1991 19
  13. Provincial Level Party and Government Bodies, 1990-1991 23
  14. Selected Scientific and Cultural Organizations, 1990-1991 40
  15. Bibliography 45

V PARTY 46

  1. Survey, 1990 46
  2. Chronology, 1990 47
  3. Chinese Communist Party Central Committee Membership, 1990-1991 48
  4. CPC Politburo and Secretariat, 1991 52
  5. Provincial Level Party Leadership, 1990-1991 54
  6. Growth in CPC Membership, 1921-1988 54
  7. Changing CPC Composition by Occupation, 1956-1987 54
  8. Educational Level of Party Members, 1978-1988 55
  9. University Students in Beijing and Party Membership 55
  10. Overview of China's Political Parties 56
  11. China's Minority Political Parties 58
  12. Guidelines Proposed by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China for Upholding and Improving the System of Multi-Party Cooperation and Political Consultation under the Leadership of the Communist Party 59
  13. Bibliography 63

VI INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 65

  1. Survey, 1990 65
  2. Chronology, 1990 66
  3. Ministry of Foreign Affairs Offices and Officials, 1990-1991 68
  4. International Representation, 1990-1991 68
  5. Bibliography 70

VII MILITARY 71

  1. Structure of China's Military Leadership, 1990 71
  2. Survey, 1990 75
  3. Chronology, 1990 75
  4. Map of China's Military Regions and Districts 76
  5. Military Sciences Institutions, 1990-1991 77
  6. China's Military Capability, 1990 77
  7. China's Defense Budget, 1966-1989 80
  8. Interlocking Directorates in the PRC Military and Civilian Structure 81
  9. Ratio and Percent of Military in the CCP Politburo and Central Committee 81
  10. PRC Radar Systems 81
  11. PRC Naval Forces 83
  12. China's Nuclear Arsenal in World Perspective, 1946-1989 86
  13. China in World Arms Exports, 1985-1989 87
  14. Bibliography 87

VIII POPULATION 88

  1. Trends in the Rates of Birth, Death and Natural Increase of Chinese Popula-tion, 1950-1990 88
  2. Trends in the Rates of Birth, Death and Natural Increase of Chinese Popula-
  3. tion, 1980-1990 88
  4. Birth Rate and Natural Growth Rate of China's Population, 1987-1990 89
  5. Annual Percentage Increase and Year-end Totals of China's Population,
  6. 1987-1990 89
  7. Chinese in Population 1982-1990, by Province 90
  8. Proportions of Urban Population to Total Population in 1990, by Province 90
  9. Natural Growth Rate of Population 1989-1990, by Province 91
  10. Survey, 1990 91
  11. Chronology, 1990 92
  12. China's Total Population, Density, Natural Change, and Percent Urban by Province, 1982 and 1990 92
  13. Population of China's Nationalities, 1982 and 1990 93
  14. Rural to Urban Migration Growth, 1980s 94
  15. China's Ageing Population 96
  16. Family Size Preferences, 1980s 100
  17. Percent Distribution of Desired Family Size by Level of Education. Two Surveys in Shanghai 100
  18. Sex Ratios in China at Birth, by Age of Mother and Birth Order, 1986 101
  19. Births by Sex and Sex Ratios at Birth by Province, 1986 102
  20. Sex Ratio Differentials at Birth in China's Cities, Towns, and Rural Counties, 1986-1987 103
  21. China Progression Rates from First to Second Birth, per Thousand, by
  22. Time since First Birth, 1973-1987 103
  23. Bibliography 103

IX CITIES AND URBANIZATION 105

  1. Percent Urban Population, China and the World, 1950-1990 105
  2. Survey, 1990 105
  3. Chronology, 1990 107
  4. Urban Planning, 1980s-1990s 107
  5. Proposed Pudong Development Zone, Shanghai 113
  6. Relationship of Shenzhen Special Economic Zone to Hong Kong and Shenzhen City 114
  7. Rural-Urban Linkages and Urbanization, Flow Diagram 114
  8. Employment Structure of the Floating (Migrant) Population in 15 Chinese Cities, 1986-1987 115
  9. Size of the Floating (Migrant) Population in 21 Chinese Cities, 1986-1987 116
  10. Urban Services Provision in 28 Chinese Cities, 1988 117
  11. Urban and Total Population Distribution by Province, 1985 118
  12. The Tianjin-Tanggu Rapid-Rail Transit Alignment, 1990 118
  13. Targets for Tianjin City Planning, 1990-2000 118
  14. Bibliography 119

X ECONOMY 120

  1. Industrial Employment Trends, 1990 120
  2. Total Industrial Wages, Nov 1990 120
  3. Trends in Agricultural and Industrial Output Values, 1988-1990 121
  4. Trend of Investment in Fixed Assets by Sector, 1988-1990 121
  5. Survey, 1990 121
  6. Chronology, 1990 122
  7. Average Annual Percentage Growth in Gross Domestic Product in China and Other Developing Countries, 1980-1986 123
  8. Major Indicators of Economic Decentralization and Marketization in China, 1978-1988 123
  9. Annual Indicators of Economic Activity in China, 1979-1989 124
  10. Economic Indicators of the Township-Village-Private Sector by Province, 1985 125
  11. Major Indicators of Price Deregulation in China, 1979-1988 125
  12. Market Price Trends, Average, 1987-1989 126
  13. Relative Wage Level by Industry in Japan and the People's Republic of China, 1983, 1984 126
  14. Year to Year Change in China's Cost of Living Price Index, 1978-1988 127
  15. Categories of Prices According to Allocative Function in China Since 1978 127
  16. Money Supply in China, 1979-1989 128
  17. Factors in Money Supply Increase in China, 1979-1989 129
  18. Factors Effecting the Increase/Decrease of Cash in Circulation in China, 1980s 129
  19. Chinese Currency in Circulation, 1979-1988 130
  20. Inflation Index in China, 1978-1988 130
  21. Annual Incomes of Four Families in Tianjin, 1985, 1989 131
  22. SEZ Economic Performance in 1987 131
  23. Shanghai Employment Density 132
  24. Economic Policy Reforms in China, 1980s 132
  25. The Chinese Economy in 1990 and 1991: Uncertain Recovery 134
  26. Selected Corporations 165
  27. Bibliography 167

XI RESOURCES 169

  1. Iron Ore and Bauxite Production, 1960-1989 169
  2. Survey, 1990 170
  3. Chronology, 1990 171
  4. China's Grassland Development 171
  5. China Planting World's Largest Afforested Area 173
  6. Proposals to Solve China's Water Shortages 173
  7. Plans for Diverting Yangtze River Water Northward 174
  8. China's Key Iron Ore Mines 175
  9. China's Output of Iron Ore and Iron Concentrate and Agglomerate, 1952-1985 176
  10. China's Output, Imports and Exports of Pig Iron, 1980-1986 176
  11. China's Output of Iron Ore and Total Demand for Iron, 1987-2000 176
  12. Bibliography 176

XII ENERGY 177

  1. Increased Annual Output of Major Energy Sectors During the Seventh Five Year Plan 177
  2. Survey, 1990 177
  3. Chronology, 1990 178
  4. PRC Crude Oil Production and Exports, 1979-1990 179
  5. China's Oil Resources 180
  6. Two New Power Stations on Line 180
  7. Energy Facilities and Transport Routes in East China 181
  8. Coal Output by Different Types of Mines, 1978-1985 182
  9. Average Coal Prices in Two Chinese Cities, 1979-1986 182
  10. Rural Energy Consumption in Tongliang County, Sichuan 182
  11. Savings from Use of Gas at Four Locations in China 183
  12. Heating Loads and Energy Consumptions for Prototypical Multifamily Buildings in China and the United States 184
  13. Heating Loads and Energy Consumptions for Energy-Efficient Multifamily Buildings in China 184
  14. Cost of Large Versus Small Power Plants in China, 1986 185
  15. Development of China's Energy Industries, 1949-1989 185
  16. Bibliography 187

XIII INDUSTRY 187

  1. Increased Annual Output of Steel and Textile Industries During the Seventh Five Year Plan, 1986-1990 187
  2. Survey, 1990 188
  3. Chronology, 1990 189
  4. Industrial Production, January-March, 1990 190
  5. Industrial Production, January-June, 1990 191
  6. Industrial Production, January-September, 1990 192
  7. Changes in China's Industrial Production, 1978-1988 193
  8. Ten Selected Largest Industrial Enterprises, 1988 193
  9. Share of Industrial Enterprises in Total Retail Sales, 1952-1987 196
  10. State Plan and Shanghai Market Prices for Steel Products, 1979-1989 196
  11. State Plan and Shanghai Market Prices for Selected Industrial Producer Goods, 1979-1989 197
  12. Market Prices in Shanghai and Various Cities, 1984-1987 197
  13. Petrochemical Industry Report, 1990 198
  14. Aviation Industry Developments, 1980s 199
  15. Bibliography 202

XIV AGRICULTURE 202

  1. Increases in Major Agricultural Products, 1990 over 1989 202
  2. Annual Output Increase of Major Agriculture Products During the Seventh Five Year Plan, 1986-1990 203
  3. Trends in Agricultural Production Equipment, 1988-1990 203
  4. Survey, 1990 203
  5. Chronology, 1990 204
  6. Per Capita Indexes of TVP Development, by Province, 1985 205
  7. Rice Area, Production, and Yield, 1949-1985 206
  8. Structure of China's Rural Economy after 1979 207
  9. Structure of China's Rural Economy before 1979 208
  10. Changes in China's Rice Area by Province, 1965-1985 209
  11. Rural Labor Force Distribution among Economic Activities, 1970-1988 209
  12. Net Per Capita Income of Peasants by Source, Selected Years 1978-1987 210
  13. Net Per Capita Income of Peasants by Activity, Selected Years 1978-1987 211
  14. Township and Village Labor by Sector, 1978-1987 212
  15. Changes in a Rural Town in Wuxi County, Jiangsu, 1980-1987 213
  16. Eco-Agriculture Lifts Yield 214
  17. Bibliography 214

XV TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNICATION 215

  1. Freight Transport by Sector, 1990 215
  2. Production of Transport Equipment, Trends 1988-1990 216
  3. Passenger Transport by Sector, 1990 216
  4. Survey, 1990 216
  5. Chronology, 1990 216
  6. Transport and Communications Improvements 218
  7. Throughput and Berths at Seaports Handling More than One Million Tons, 1987 218
  8. Distribution of Seaports in China 219
  9. Cargoes Shifted by Seaports Handling More than 10,000 Tons, 1987 219
  10. China's Expressways 220
  11. Chinese Newspapers in 1987 221
  12. People's Daily Coverage of Taiwan Government, 1976-1986 222
  13. Taiwan in People's Daily by Category, 1976-1986 222
  14. Chinese Journalists' Priorities for Journalism Reform, Late 1980s 223
  15. Leading Chinese Journalists Replaced in the Wake of the Tiananmen Incident 223
  16. Television Sets per 100 Households, 1980-1986 225
  17. Growth of Television Stations in China, 1965-1986 225
  18. Growth of Television Audience, 1975-1987 226
  19. Television Dramas Produced, 1978-1985 226
  20. Modern Telecommunication Network in Shenzhen 226
  21. Bibliography 228

XVI TOURISM 228

  1. Trends in International Tourism in China, 1987-1990 228
  2. Survey, 1990 228
  3. Chronology, 1990 229
  4. The Recovery of China's Tourism, 1990 230
  5. Efforts to Improve Tourism, 1990 233
  6. New Tourist Itineraries, 1990 234
  7. Preferential Treatment of Overseas Chinese Tourists Discontinued 235
  8. Bibliography 236

XVII FOREIGN TRADE 236

  1. China's Imports and Exports, 1987-1990 236
  2. Survey, 1990 236
  3. Chronology, 1990 237
  4. China's Foreign Trade with Selected Countries and Regions, Sep 1989-Sep 1990 239
  5. Imports and Exports, Sep 1989-Sep 1990 240
  6. Trade with Selected Non-Communist Countries, 1986-1990 240
  7. Trade with Communist Countries, 1985-1989 242
  8. China's Annual Trade Balance, 1979-1988 242
  9. Major Export Commodities by Volume, Sep 1989-Sep 1990 243
  10. Growth of China's Textile Exports, 1950-1985 244
  11. Composition of China's Export Products, 1955-1985 244
  12. Annual Imports of Basic Goods, 1955-1986 244
  13. Relative Proportions of China's Total Annual Imports, 1955-1986 244
  14. Imports from Major Trading Partners, 1988-1990 245
  15. US Exports to China by Commodity, 1980-1989 246
  16. US Imports from China by Commodity, 1980-1989 252
  17. Direct Foreign Investment in China by Province, Mid-1980s 258
  18. Direct Foreign Investment by Province, Mid-1980s 259
  19. Distribution by Sector of IBRD and IDA Funds for China and for Other Countries, 1981-1988 259
  20. IBRD and IDA Lending to India and China, 1981-1988 260
  21. List of World Bank China Approved Projects, 1981-1989 261
  22. Foreign Investment in China, 1980s. Survey 264
  23. Bibliography 267

XVIII STATE BUDGET AND FINANCE 268

  1. Draft State Budget for 1990 268
  2. Survey, 1990 268
  3. Chronology, 1990 269
  4. China's Annual Budget Deficit, 1982-1988 270
  5. Market Share of Financial Intermediaries in China, 1985-1987 270
  6. Financial Assets by Type of Instrument, 1985-1987 271
  7. Township Revenue Flows and Community Enterprises, 1980s 271
  8. Flows of Funds between Private Firms and the Local Community, 1980s 272
  9. Statement of People's Insurance Company of China, 1980-1989 272
  10. Statement of People's Insurance Company of China's Foreign Operations, 1980-1989 273
  11. Foreign Exchange Control, System, 1990 273
  12. Utilization of Foreign Capital, 1979-1988 275
  13. China's World Bank Projects by Region, 1981-1989 276
  14. World Bank/IDA China Funds by Sector, 1981-1988 276
  15. China Projects in World Bank Pipeline, Yearend 1990 277
  16. Bibliography 281

XIX SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 281

  1. Shanghai-Made Rockets Launched, 1960-1990 281
  2. Survey, 1990 282
  3. Chronology, 1990 282
  4. Telescope in Service 284
  5. Low-Temperature Heat Generating Nuclear Reactor 285
  6. Heavy Ion Accelerator 285
  7. Torch Program for Development of Technology 286
  8. Aerospace Developments 288
  9. Ministry of Aerospace Industry 289
  10. Beijing Electron-Positron Collider Project 290
  11. Light Sensitive Materials Development 292
  12. Ergonomics Development 293
  13. Institutions for Environmental Remote Sensing 295
  14. Bibliography 297

XX ENVIRONMENT 297

  1. Main Air Pollution Regions in China 297
  2. Survey, 1990 298
  3. Chronology, 1990 298
  4. Fossil Fuel Combustion and Conversion of Forests and Grasslands to Cropfields, Selected Countries, 1850-1980s 300
  5. Heating Degree-Day Map of China 301
  6. Main Water Pollution Regions of China 302
  7. Environmental Planning in China, 1990 302
  8. US-PRC Environmental Research Agreement. Annexes, 1990 304
  9. Economic Development and Environmental Planning in China 307
  10. Illegal Hunting 310
  11. River Dolphins Endangered 311
  12. Environmental Analysis, 1990 312
  13. Environmental Targets of Eighth Five Year Plan, 1991-1995 315
  14. Bibliography 316

XXI REGIONAL 317

  1. Special Economic Zones, Open Cities, and Priority Development Areas 317
  2. Survey, 1990 318
  3. Chronology, 1990 319
  4. Chronology, Hong Kong, 1990 319
  5. Chronology, Taiwan Relations, 1990 320
  6. Chronology, Tibet, 1990 322
  7. Development Strategy for Yunnan Province 323
  8. Yellow River Development Summary 325
  9. The Three Major Economic Zones for Strategic Planning 326
  10. Main Economic Features of China's Western Zone, 1987 327
  11. Shanghai Residential Area Population Density, 1988 328
  12. Shanghai Residential Floor-Space Density, 1988 328
  13. Shanghai Public Facility Floor-Space Density, 1988 329
  14. Shanghai's Pudong Development Area, 1990 329
  15. Preferential Policies for Development of Pudong District, 1990 330
  16. Overseas Chinese Funding in Chikan Zhen Village, Guangdong, 1979-1989 331
  17. Domestic Infrastructural Spending and Actual Foreign Investment In Shenzhen, 1979-1987 332
  18. Hong Kong in Relation to South China 333
  19. Hong Kong's Role in China's Open-Door Policy 334
  20. Sectoral Origin of Net Domestic Product (Taiwan) and Net Material Product (Mainland), 1952 and 1985 334
  21. Foreign Trade, Taiwan and the Mainland, 1952-1988 334
  22. Annual Growth Rates of Real Gross National Product (Taiwan) and National Income (Mainland), 1979-1988 335
  23. Sino-Indian Dispute over Tibet 335
  24. Tibetan Territory Disputed Between China and India 339
  25. Bibliography 339

XXII HEALTH AND MEDICINE 340

  1. Hospital Beds and Medical Personnel in China, 1978-1990 340
  2. Survey, 1990 340
  3. Chronology, 1990 341
  4. Ratios of Abortions to Live Births in China, 1970-1987 343
  5. Diet Patterns in China, Japan, US, 1987-2020 343
  6. China's Per-Capita Consumption of Major Foods, 1978 & 1988 343
  7. Cancer in Shanghai 343
  8. Chinese Research on Anti-Cancer Effects of Tea 346
  9. Bibliography 348

XXIII EDUCATION 349

  1. Primary and Secondary School Enrollments, 1978-1990 349
  2. Secondary and Higher Education Enrollments, 1978-1990 349
  3. Survey, 1990 350
  4. Chronology, 1990 350
  5. Adult Education, 1980s 351
  6. Fighting Illiteracy in China 352
  7. New Secondary-School Exam System 353
  8. Desire of Political Workers in Universities in Beijing to Continue in their Work 353
  9. Demographic Research by Number of Institutes Investigating, 1987 354
  10. Chinese Graduate Students in Demography by Institute, in China or
  11. Abroad, 1987 354
  12. Bibliography 355

XXIV LAW AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE 357

  1. Legal Personnel, 1990 357
  2. Survey, 1990 357
  3. Chronology, 1990 358
  4. Conciliation (Arbitration) in China 359
  5. New Law on Authorship Rights, 1990 363
  6. Revival of Sociology of Law in China 365
  7. Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, 1990.
  8. Synopsis 367
  9. Bibliography 368

XXV CULTURE AND SPORTS 369

  1. 11th Asian Games, 1990. Medal Totals 369
  2. Survey, 1990 369
  3. Chronology, Culture, 1990 370
  4. Chronology, Sports, 1990 372
  5. Australopithecus in China 372
  6. Film Industry to Reduce Output, Improve Quality, 1990 373
  7. Cultural News, 1990 374
  8. National Cultural Affairs Seminar Sets Policy, January 1990 376
  9. Bibliography 379

XXVI SOCIETY 380

  1. Women's Issues in Beijing, Guangzhou, and Hong Kong, 1989-1990 380
  2. Survey, 1990 381
  3. Chronology, 1990 382
  4. Interest of University Students in Beijing in Various Activities, 1988 383
  5. Poverty Patterns in China, 1985 383
  6. Ethnic Minorities in Autonomous Administrative Units, 1985, 1987 384
  7. Income Distribution and Poverty Incidence in China and Selected Asian Countries, 1980s 385
  8. Bibliography 385

XXVII KEY WORKS ON CHINA 387

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