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China Facts & Figures Annual

Edited by Gary M. Bennett

CHIFFA Contents

 

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Contents of Volume 16 (1991)

I SURVEY xii

II SUMMARY OF SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC INDICATORS, 1991 xiii

III CHRONOLOGY xxi

MAP xxiv

IV GOVERNMENT 1

  1. Survey, 1991 1
  2. Chronology, 1991 1
  3. National People's Congress, 1991 2
  4. State Council of the Central Government, 1991 3
  5. State Council Bureaus for Government Operations, 1991 5
  6. Chinese State Structure, 1991 6
  7. Legislative Procedure. National People's Congress, 1991 7
  8. Regulations on Administrative Reconsideration, 1 Jan 1991 7
  9. Bibliography 14

V PARTY 15

  1. Survey, 1991 15
  2. Chronology, 1991 15
  3. Chinese Communist Party Central Committee Membership, 1991 16
  4. Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, 1991 21
  5. Employees in Administrative Organs and Number of Cadres, 1949-1988 22
  6. CCP Membership, 1921-1987 22
  7. Family Connections of High Officials, 1985-1988 24
  8. Bibliography 26

VI INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 27

  1. Survey, 1991 27
  2. Chronology, 1991 28
  3. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Foreign Experts Bureau, 1991 30
  4. China's Role in United Nations Peacekeeping Forces, 1990 33
  5. Interpretations of China's "One Country, Two Systems" Policy, 1990 33
  6. China's Membership in International Non-Governmental Organizations, 1960-1986 33
  7. China's Membership in Intergovernmental Organizations, 1960-1986 34
  8. Bibliography 34

VII MILITARY 36

  1. Survey, 1991 36
  2. Chronology, 1991 36
  3. Ministry of National Defense, 1991 37
  4. People's Liberation Army Service Arms, 1991 38
  5. People's Liberation Army Leadership Organizations, 1991 38
  6. People's Liberation Army Military Regions, 1991 39
  7. People's Liberation Army Military Science Agencies, 1991 43
  8. China's Military Sizes up Taiwan, 1991 43
  9. PLA Membership on CCP Central Committee and Politburo, 1956-1987 45
  10. Political Work System in the PLA, 1991 46
  11. PLA General Political Department, 1991 47
  12. Israel Sells to China, Leases to Taiwan, 1991 47
  13. Taiwan Displays New Systems, 1991 48
  14. China Throws CW Treaty into Doubt, 1991 48
  15. China Agrees to Sign the NPT, 1991 49
  16. Army Activities and Military Themes in the Chinese Media, 1975-1986 50
  17. Chinese Nuclear Forces, January 1991 50
  18. Bibliography 50

VIII POPULATION 51

  1. Birth Rate and Natural Growth Rate of China's Population, 1987-1991 51
  2. Annual Percentage Increase and Yearend Totals of China's Population, 1987-1991 52
  3. Survey, 1991 52
  4. Chronology, 1991 52
  5. State Family Planning Commission, 1991 53
  6. Selected Population Characteristics, China's Provinces, 1981-1989 54
  7. Demographic and Economic Indicators, 1980-1989 54
  8. Effect of Changes in the Marriage Pattern on Changes in the Birth Rate, By Province, Between 1981 and 1987 55
  9. Female Births Per 100 Male Births, 1960-1987 55
  10. Total Fertility Rate (TFR), 1965 and 1988 56
  11. One Child Certificate Acceptance and Second Live Birth for Hebei Province, 1979-1983 and 1984-1988 56
  12. One Child Certificate Acceptance and Second Live Birth for Hebei Province, 1979-1988 57
  13. Population Growth and Projections, 1965-2025 57
  14. Demography and Fertility Patterns, 1965-2000 57
  15. World's Twenty Most Populous Countries, 1950-2025 58
  16. Fertility Rates for Provinces and Regions, 1989-1990 58
  17. Number of Children Desired by Women in Shifang, Sichuan Province, China 1987 59
  18. Population Trends and Estimates, 1950-2025 60
  19. Family Planning and Public Health Contraceptive Delivery Systems, China, 1990 64
  20. Types of Contraception and Prevalence Rate, Hebei and Shaanxi Provinces, 1990 64
  21. Bibliography 65

IX CITIES AND URBANIZATION 65

  1. Survey, 1991 65
  2. Chronology, 1991 66
  3. Trend Based Approach to Urban Planning, 1991 67
  4. Major Projects for Eighth Five-Year Plan in Beijing, 1991 (Map) 68
  5. China's Special Economic Zones (SEZ), 1991 69
  6. Plan for Outer Ring Development in Nanjing, 1991 (Map) 70
  7. Land Use Planning Map of the Pudong Area, Shanghai, 1991 71
  8. Forecast of Cities to Reach One Million Population Before 2000, 1991 72
  9. Analysis of Suzhou Urban Renewal Project, 1991 72
  10. Households with Refrigerators and Color TV Sets in Major Chinese Cities, 1990 72
  11. Estimate of Urban Transient Population in Guangzhou, 1995-2010 73
  12. Background to Increase in China's Urban Transient Population, 1965-1988 73
  13. Provisions of Land Administration in the Shanghai Pudong New Area, 10 Sep 1990 74
  14. Urbanization Patterns, 1965-1990 76
  15. Growth of Urban Population, 1982-1986 77
  16. Development Indicators by City Size, 1988 77
  17. Selected Urban Indicators of Million-Plus Cities, 1988 78
  18. Urban Housing Reform Problems and Solutions, 1991 78
  19. Bibliography 82

X ECONOMY 83

  1. Trends in Agricultural and Industrial Output Values, 1988-1991 83
  2. Trend of Investment in Fixed Assets by Sector, 1988-1991 84
  3. Survey, 1991 84
  4. Chronology, 1991 84
  5. Government Economic Affairs Agencies and Officials, 1991 86
  6. China's Major Economic Indicators, 1990 and 1991 87
  7. Model of China's Economy, 1991 88
  8. China's Economic Development Strategy, 1991 88
  9. Planned Economy Versus Market Economy, 1991 89
  10. Chinese Trade with East European Countries, 1987-1991 89
  11. China's Place Among Developing Countries, by Economic Indicators, 1970s-1990 90
  12. Key Economic Trends Forecast, 1991-1993 90
  13. Annual Indicators of Economic Activity in China, 1980-1990 91
  14. Economic Indicators for Eighth Five-Year Plan, 1991-1995 92
  15. Capital Expenditures in the Eighth Five-Year Plan, 1991-1995 92
  16. China's Official and True Inflation Rates, 1979-1988 93
  17. RMB Exchange Rate, 1989-1993 93
  18. Inflation and GDP Forecasts, China and Asian Countries, 1992 94
  19. Exchange Rates of Asian Currencies, 1989-1990 95
  20. Foreign Exchange Rates, Dec 1991-Jan 1992 95
  21. Percentage Composition of Wages in the State Sector, 1978-1988 96
  22. Percentage Increase in Consumer Prices, 1978-1990 96
  23. Urban and Rural Employment Trends, 1991-1995 96
  24. Productivity in State Operated Enterprises (SOE) and Cooperative Enterprises (COE) 97
  25. Foreign Enterprises, by Field, in Mainland China, 1979-1986 97
  26. Decision Making Structure of a Chinese State Enterprise, 1991 98
  27. Toy Manufacturing Costs, Hong Kong and China, 1991 98
  28. Personnel Services Provided by Enterprises of Different Ownership, Industry and Size, 1991 99
  29. Problems of American Joint Ventures in China, 1990 100
  30. Economic Production Indexes, 1977-1990 100
  31. Labor Force in China's Economy, 1977-1989 101
  32. China's Economy in World Context, 1991 102
  33. Bibliography 104

XI RESOURCES 106

  1. Survey, 1991 106
  2. Chronology, 1991 107
  3. Government Natural Resource Agencies and Officials, 1991 108
  4. China's Non-Ferrous Metals Corridor, 1991 108
  5. Non-Ferrous Metals Industry, 1991 109
  6. China National Non-Ferrous Metals Import and Export Corp. (CNIEC), 1991 110
  7. Mandatory Planning as a Percentage of Total Supply, 1979 and 1988 111
  8. Iron Ore and Bauxite Production, 1960-1990 111
  9. Bibliography 111

XII ENERGY 111

  1. Energy Production Trends, 1988-1991 111
  2. Increased Annual Output of Major Energy Sectors, 1985-1991 112
  3. Survey, 1991 112
  4. Chronology, 1991 112
  5. Government Energy Resource Agencies and Officials, 1991 114
  6. Oil Development, 1991 114
  7. Oil Fields and Oil Basins in China, 1980s 116
  8. Output of Major Oil Fields, 1980-1987 116
  9. Drilling and Production in China, 1979-1990 117
  10. Chinese Crude Oil Production and Exports, 1979-1991 117
  11. Energy Requirements of Energy-Intensive Products, 1991 118
  12. Progress in Nuclear Power Development, 1991 118
  13. Three Gorges Project in Perspective, 1991 121
  14. Energy Conservation Measures and Policies, 1991 121
  15. Renewable Energy Developments, 1991 122
  16. Foreign Role in Power Industry Development, 1991 122
  17. Bibliography 124

XIII INDUSTRY 124

  1. Increased Annual Output of the Steel, Textile, and Sugar Industries, 1985-1991 124
  2. Construction Projects by Ownership Sectors, 1991 124
  3. Survey, 1991 125
  4. Chronology, 1991 125
  5. Government Agencies and Officials Concerned with Industry, 1991 126
  6. Industrial Production, Jan-Jun 1991 129
  7. Industrial Production, Jan-Sep 1991 130
  8. China's Textile Production, Jan-Jun 1991 131
  9. Major Iron and Steel Enterprises' Output, 1980 and 1990 131
  10. China's Cotton Yarn Production, 1990 and 1991 132
  11. Steel Production and Related Economic Indicators, 1952-1988 132
  12. Industrial Production, 1989 133
  13. Industrial Production, 1949-1990 134
  14. Industrial Labor Productivity, China and Other Countries, 1978-1988 135
  15. Time Required for Industrial Productivity to Catch Up, 1988 135
  16. Composition of State and Collective Industrial Output, 1978 and 1987 136
  17. Rural Industries, Growth Rate and Share of Total Output, 1980-1988 136
  18. Industrial Growth Rate in China, 1970-1989 137
  19. Industrial Activity by Ownership Category in China, 1970-1990 138
  20. China's World Rank of Major Manufactured Goods, 1949 and 1988 138
  21. Industrial Ownership, 1985-1990 138
  22. Capital Structure of Chinese Industry, 1936-1990 139
  23. Structure of Production, 1965 and 1990 139
  24. Production Growth Rates, 1965-1990 139
  25. Industrial Production Index, 1960-1990 139
  26. Structure of Manufacturing, 1990 139
  27. Beijing Copper Plant Products, 1991 140
  28. Projected Pulp and Paper Mills in China, 1990-2000 140
  29. Bibliography 144

XIV AGRICULTURE 144

  1. Trends in Agricultural Production Equipment, 1988-1991 144
  2. Trends in Main Agricultural Products, 1988-1991 145
  3. Survey, 1991 145
  4. Chronology, 1991 145
  5. Ministry of Agriculture, 1991 147
  6. Land and Labor by Province, 1984 147
  7. Grain Production and Procurement, 1952-1987 148
  8. Agricultural Output and Peasant Income, 1949-1985 149
  9. Rural Industrial and Social Output, 1980-1989 149
  10. Growth of Township and Village Enterprises in China, 1978-1988 149
  11. Growth of Output of Rural Enterprises, 1978-1988 150
  12. Percentage of Peasant Households in China by Nominal Net Income, 1978-1988 151
  13. Chinese Peasants' Income Distribution and Household Size, 1985-1988 151
  14. State Financial Support of Agriculture, 1953-1987 152
  15. Research Resource Allocation in Chinese Agriculture, 1975-1987 152
  16. Rice in China, 1976-1987 153
  17. Ecological Agriculture in China, 1991 153
  18. Agriculture Production Indicators, 1977-1990 155
  19. Model of Shamu Cultivation in Fujian Province, 1991 156
  20. Bibliography 157

XV TRANSPORTATION 158

  1. Freight Transport by Sector, 1991 158
  2. Passenger Transport by Sector, 1991 158
  3. Trends in Production of Transport Equipment, 1988-1991 159
  4. Survey, 1991 159
  5. Chronology, 1991 159
  6. Government Transport Agencies and Officials, 1991 160
  7. China Southern Airline's Growth, 1986-1991 161
  8. Trans-Eurasian Rail Line Chinese Terminals, 1991 161
  9. China's Metro Plans, 1991 164
  10. Growth of Chinese Container Line, 1991 164
  11. China Increases its Holding in Hong Kong Container Port, 1991 166
  12. Highway and Waterway Construction, 1991-1995 166
  13. Hong Kong-China Light Rail Link Plan, 1991 168
  14. Main Transport Routes, 1991 169
  15. Types of Access and Transport Facilities in Rural China, 1991 170
  16. Truck, Bus, and Rubber Tire Production, 1960-1990 170
  17. Bibliography 170

XVI COMMUNICATIONS 171

  1. Survey, 1991 171
  2. Communications Officials, 1991 171
  3. Journalism Code of Ethics, Adopted, Jan 1991 173
  4. Censorship of USSR Break-Up, 1991 173
  5. Board of Editors of the World Economic Herald, 1989 174
  6. China's Role in the Asia-Pacific Broadcasting Union, 1990 175
  7. Bibliography 176

XVII TOURISM 176

  1. International Tourism in China, 1985-1991 176
  2. Survey, 1991 176
  3. Chronology, 1991 177
  4. National Tourism Administration, 1991 178
  5. Summary of Tourism Development, 1990 178
  6. Tourists Flocking to China, 1991 179
  7. Ten Leading Areas of Hotel Development, 1991 179
  8. Map of Hiking Areas in Central Tibet, 1991 180
  9. Accommodations and Transportation in Tibet, 1991 181
  10. Bibliography 182

XVIII FOREIGN TRADE 183

  1. Value of China's Imports and Exports, 1987-1991 183
  2. Survey, 1991 183
  3. Chronology, 1991 184
  4. Government Foreign Economic Relations Agencies and Officials, 1991 185
  5. Imports and Exports by Country, 1991 188
  6. Major Export Commodities, Jun 1990-Jun 1991 192
  7. Major Import Commodities, Jun 1990-Jun 1991 193
  8. Trade with China, 1988-1991 195
  9. Trade with East European Countries, 1987-1991 196
  10. Exports to China, 1988-1991 197
  11. Textile Fiber Imports, Jan-Jun 1991 198
  12. China's Textile Exports, Jan-Jun 1991 198
  13. Sources of Foreign Capital in China, Jan-Jun 1991 198
  14. Production and Exports of Mulberry Silk and Silk Fabrics, 1980-1990 199
  15. China's Foreign Trade, 1981-1989 200
  16. Competitive Market Share, China and Asean, 1978-1987 200
  17. Exports by SITC Category, China, Asean Countries and NICS, 1982-1987 200
  18. People's Republic of China Exports and Imports Via Hong Kong, 1965-1988 201
  19. Trade Trends of Bohai China and China-South Korea, 1981-1988 202
  20. Amount and Country Composition of Bohai Region's Foreign Trade, 1988 202
  21. Balance of Payments and the Terms of Trade in China, 1984-1987 203
  22. Chinese Trade Agreements by Country, 1988-1990 203
  23. Income Tax Treaties with Austria, Romania, and the USSR, 1991 204
  24. No Winners in Denying China MFN Status, 1991 206
  25. Bibliography 208

XIX STATE BUDGET AND FINANCE 208

  1. Survey, 1991 208
  2. Chronology, 1991 209
  3. Government Budget and Finance Agencies and Officials, 1991 209
  4. State Revenue and Expenditure, 1990 and 1991 211
  5. Growth Rates and Elasticities in China's Economy, 1987-1995 212
  6. The Financial System in China, 1991 213
  7. Revenues and Expenditures, 1991-1995 213
  8. Monetary Statistics for the Chinese Economy, 1979-1988 214
  9. Sources and Uses of Funds, 1979-1987 215
  10. Growth Rates of Exogenous Variables in China's Economy, 1987-1995 216
  11. China and Asian Countries Current-Account Balance Forecast, 1992 216
  12. China and Asian Countries Medium- and Long-Term Debt Forecast, 1992 217
  13. Revenue-Sharing Rates of China's Provincial Units, 1980-1983 217
  14. Investment as a Percentage of Value-Added, 1971-1988 218
  15. Interest Rates and Loans, 1978-1989 218
  16. Deposits and Loans of the People's Bank of China, 1979-1988 219
  17. Percentage Changes in Currency and Household Bank Deposits, 1979-1988 219
  18. Rural Deposits and Agricultural Loans, by Institution, 1979-1988 220
  19. Sources of Funds in State Operated Enterprises (SOES), 1981-1988 220
  20. Foreign Capital Flow into Mainland China, 1979-1987 220
  21. Capital Accumulation and Foreign Capital Inflows as Percentages of National Income Available, 1979-1987 221
  22. Examples of Average Share Prices of China-Linked Companies, Jan 1989-Mar 1991 221
  23. Top 200 Asian Banks, by Country, 1991 222
  24. Shenzhen Metal Exchange Contract Specifications, 1991 223
  25. China's First Commodity Futures Market, 1991 223
  26. Articles 107 and 109 of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region's Basic Law, 1987-1989 225
  27. Money and Interest Rates, 1980 and 1990 227
  28. Bibliography 227

XX SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 228

  1. Survey, 1991 228
  2. Chronology, 1991 228
  3. Government Science and Technology Organizations, 1991 229
  4. New Technology Zone in Beijing, 1991 232
  5. Survey of Science and Technology Plans, 1991 233
  6. Science and Technology Development, 1984-1989 235
  7. Scientists and Engineers in R&D and Expenditures for R&D, 1988 236
  8. Bibliography 236

XXI ENVIRONMENT 237

  1. Survey, 1991 237
  2. Chronology, 1991 237
  3. Government Environmental Agencies, 1991 238
  4. China's Top Ten Environmental Stories, 1991 239
  5. Disaster Relief in China, 1991 239
  6. China Develops Marine Nature Reserves, 1990 240
  7. Average Concentrations of Trace Elements in Aerosol Samples in Beijing, 1991 242
  8. Radon Concentrations in the Beijing Area, 1991 243
  9. Projected Environmental Improvements in Beijing, 1990-1995 243
  10. Hong Kong Air Pollution, 1988 244
  11. Bibliography 244

XXII REGIONAL 245

  1. Survey, 1991 245
  2. Chronology, 1991 246
  3. Chronology, 1991, Hong Kong and Macao 247
  4. Chronology, 1991, Taiwan 247
  5. Chronology, 1991, Tibet 248
  6. Provincial Level Party Organizations, 1991 248
  7. Main Cities of Taiwan, 1991 265
  8. Hong Kong Administrative Districts, 1991 266
  9. Main Locations in Hong Kong, 1991 267
  10. Three Gorges Project, 1991 268
  11. Comparative Investment in the Three Gorges Project, 1991 269
  12. Management Framework for the Three Gorges Project, 1991 269
  13. China-Korea Yellow Sea Rim Area, 1990 270
  14. Tianjin Municipality, 1992 271
  15. Heilongjiang Province Vital Statistics, 1990 271
  16. China's Administrative Structure, 1991 272
  17. The People's Republic of China 273
  18. Map of Tibet and Central Tibet, 1991 274
  19. Map of Hong Kong, 1991 276
  20. Xinjiang and the New Central Asian Republics, 1992 277
  21. Free Trade Zones, 1991 277
  22. Foreign Investment Authorities in the Special Economic Zones and 14 Open Coastal Cities, 1991 278
  23. Bibliography 280

XXIII HEALTH AND MEDICINE 282

  1. Hospital Beds and Medical Personnel in China, 1978-1991 282
  2. Survey, 1991 282
  3. Chronology, 1991 282
  4. Government Medicine and Health Organizations and Officials, 1991 283
  5. Treatment for Infertility in Traditional Chinese Medicine, 1991 284
  6. Chinese Plant Extract in Fight Against Malaria, 1991 284
  7. Health and Nutrition, 1965-1990 285
  8. Health and Welfare, 1965-1990 285
  9. Bibliography 285

XXIV EDUCATION 287

  1. Primary and Secondary School Enrollments, 1978-1991 287
  2. Secondary and Higher Education Enrollments, 1978-1991 288
  3. Survey, 1991 288
  4. Chronology, 1991 288
  5. Government Education Commission Officials, 1991 289
  6. Major Public Libraries, 1987 290
  7. Selected Data Bases in China, 1991 290
  8. Base Salaries for Chinese University Faculty, 1989 290
  9. Survey of Middle School Student Ambitions, 1981 and 1989 291
  10. Overview of Selected University Management Schools in the PRC, 1991 292
  11. Bibliography 292

XXV LAW AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE 294

  1. Survey, 1991 294
  2. Chronology, 1991 294
  3. Central Judicial System Officials, 1991 295
  4. Government Law, Criminal Justice, and Security Agencies and Officials, 1991 296
  5. Copyright Legislation Summary, 1991 297
  6. Patent Applications in China, 1985-1990 299
  7. College Established Behind Prison Walls, 1991 300
  8. Bibliography 300

XXVI CULTURE 301

  1. Survey, 1991 301
  2. Chronology, 1991 301
  3. Cultural Officials, 1991 302
  4. China and Taiwan Cooperate on Art Exhibit, 1991 303
  5. China's Angry Young Artists, 1991 303
  6. Chinese Film Report, 1991 305
  7. Political Cartoonists in Hong Kong, 1991 305
  8. Bibliography 306

XXVII SPORTS 308

  1. Survey, 1991 308
  2. Chronology, 1991 308
  3. Sports Officials, 1991 309
  4. China's Sports Prospects for Barcelona Olympic Games, 1991 309
  5. Child Diver Fu Mingxia, 1991 312
  6. Sports Products Publicity Firm, 1991 313
  7. China's Bid for the 2000 Olympics, 1991 314
  8. Bibliography 315

XXVIII SOCIETY 315

  1. Survey, 1991 315
  2. Chronology, 1991 315
  3. Government Social Issue Agencies and Officials, 1991 316
  4. Administration of Minorities in China, 1991 318
  5. Estimates of Poverty in China, 1978-1988 319
  6. Organizational Psychology in China, 1991 320
  7. Child-Woman Ratio by Type of Household. Mosuos of Yunnan Province, China, 1991 320
  8. Public Relations Education in China, 1991 320
  9. Avon in South China, 1991 321
  10. Bibliography 321

 

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