Academic International Press


China Facts & Figures Annual

Edited by Gary M. Bennett

CHIFFA Contents

 

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Contents of Volume 18 (1993)

ABBREVIATIONS OF TERMS xviii

ABBREVIATIONS OF SOURCES xx

PREFACE xxi

I SURVEY 1

Map of China 5

II SUMMARY OF SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC INDICATORS, 1993 6

  1. China's Primary Economic Indicators, 1993-1994 6
  2. China's Ten Biggest Projects, 1993 6
  3. Goals for China's National Economic and Social Development, 1993 6
  4. China's Main Social and Economic Indicators, 1993-1994 7
  5. People's Republic of China, 1993 8
  6. Map of China 14

III CHRONOLOGY, 1993 15

IV GOVERNMENT 37

  1. China's New Cabinet, 1993 37
  2. China's New President, Vice President, 1993 38
  3. Chinese Restructure State Council, 1993 39
  4. China's State Council's Plan for 1993 40
  5. Guidelines for State Planning Commission, 1993 40
  6. Organization of China's Central Government, 1993 41
  7. China's State Council Reorganization, 1993 41
  8. China's State Bureaus and Administrations Reorganized, 1993 42
  9. Responsibilities of China's State Council Members, 1993 42
  10. Votes for Chinese State Council Members, 1993 43
  11. Special Committees of NPC, 1993 44
  12. Organization of China's National People's Congress, 1993 45
  13. Eighth NPC Financial and Economic Committee, 1993 45
  14. Eighth NPC Law Committee, 1993 46
  15. China's Constitution Amended, 1993 46
  16. China's Constitutional Amendments, 1993 46
  17. The Four Constitutions of the PRC, 1949-1993 46
  18. China's Budget 47
  19. China's Major Expenditures, 1979-1991 48
  20. Important Laws Enacted by NPC, 1988-1992 49
  21. Highlights of 1993 Tax Reform 49
  22. China's Tax Law Regulations, 1993 50
  23. Chinese Civil Service Regulations, 1993 50
  24. New Chinese Civil Service System, 1993 50
  25. Chinese Civil Service Grades, 1993 50
  26. China's State Security Law, 1993 51
  27. CPPCC Committee Proposals, 1988-1992 51
  28. Control of Official Chinese Government Seals, 1993 51
  29. Control of Development Areas, 1993 52

V PARTY 52

  1. Communist Party of China, 1993 52
  2. Chinese Communist Party Corruption, 1993 52
  3. Organization of the Chinese Communist Party, 1993 53
  4. China's New Premier, 1993 54
  5. Chinese Leaders and Their Order of Protocol, 1993 54
  6. Agenda of First Session of Eighth National People's Congress 55
  7. Composition of Eighth NPPCC National Committee, 1993 56
  8. Profiles of Vice Chairmen of CPPCC National Committee, 1993 56
  9. Deputies at Eighth NPC, 1993 59
  10. Eighth CPPCC National Committee, 1993 59
  11. Credential Committee of Eighth NPC Standing Committee, 1993 60
  12. Security During 1993 NPC and CPPCC Sessions 60
  13. China's Fourteenth Party Congress Central Committee Profile, 1993 61
  14. Deng Xiaoping's "Five-Point Opinion" on Reform, 1993 61
  15. CPC Categorizes Provinces, Regions, Municipalities, 1993 61
  16. Chinese Have Party Supervision Problems, 1993 62
  17. Leadership of Chinese Communist Youth League (CCYL), 1993 63
  18. Background of Chinese Communist Youth League, 1993 63
  19. China's People's Armed Police, 1993 63
  20. Organization of China's People's Armed Police, 1993 64
  21. Terms Used in Describing Chinese Socialist Market Economy, 1993 65
  22. Chinese Communist Party Member Deaths, 1993 66

VI INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 67

  1. Principles of China's Foreign Relations, 1993 67
  2. China's Foreign Policy, 1993 67
  3. Mao Zedong's Principles for Chinese Diplomacy, 1993 68
  4. Summary of CPC Foreign Relations Efforts, 1988-1992 68
  5. Foreign Affairs Committee of Eighth NPC, 1993 68
  6. Overseas Chinese Affairs Committee of Eighth NPC, 1993 69
  7. Chinese UN Delegate on Goals for 1995 Summit 69
  8. China's Policy on Transparency in Arms Transfer, 1993 69
  9. China Accused of Breaking Missile Pledge, 1993 70
  10. China Signs UN Counternarcotics Memo, 1993 70
  11. China Approves Consular Treaty With Ukraine, 1993 70
  12. China's Old Sphere of Influence, Map 71
  13. US Conditions Before China Admitted to GATT, 1993 71
  14. Sino-US Relations, 1993 72
  15. American Strategy Toward China Viewed as Antagonistic, 1993 72
  16. Relations Between China and Taiwan, 1993 72
  17. First High Level China-Taiwan Meeting, 1993 73
  18. China-Taiwan Agreements, 1993 74
  19. Investment Guarantee Between China and Taiwan, 1993 74
  20. Chinese Attitude Toward British, 1985-1993 74
  21. Chinese Poll on Hong Kong Conducted in Beijing, 1993 75
  22. Chinese, Hong Kong Differences on Elections, 1993 75
  23. Relations Between China and North Korea, 1993 75
  24. Relations Between China and South Korea, 1993 76
  25. China Agrees to Tumen River Accord, 1993 76

VII MILITARY 77

  1. China's Regional Military Leaders, 1993 77
  2. China's PLA General Political Department Directors, 1950-1993 77
  3. China's New Central Military Commission Chairman, 1993 77
  4. New Membership of China's Central Military Commission, 1993 78
  5. PLA Budget to Increase in 1993 78
  6. PLA Sets Training Tasks for 1993 78
  7. China's New Generals, 1993 78
  8. Backgrounds of Six New Chinese Generals, 1993 78
  9. China's Military Commission Stresses Combat Readiness, 1993 79
  10. Chinese to Buy Missiles, Build Carriers, 1993 80
  11. China's PLA Improves Effectiveness, 1993 80
  12. Aircraft Carriers for China, 1993 80
  13. China Trains Future Aircraft Carrier Commanders, 1993 80
  14. Major Chinese Arms Purchases From Russia, 1993 80
  15. Changes in China's Military Strength, 1981-1992 81
  16. China's Comparative Defense Expenditures, 1985-1991 81
  17. Military Age Chinese, 1989-1992 81
  18. Chinese Military Academy of Medical Sciences, 1993 81
  19. Legal Consulting for Chinese Armed Forces, 1993 82
  20. New PLA Camouflage Uniforms, 1993 82
  21. China's New Newspaper for PLA, 1993 82
  22. Chinese Training Submarine Accident, 1993 82
  23. Control of China's Nuclear Weapons, 1971-1992 82
  24. Chinese PLA Noncommissioned Grades Receive Ranks, 1993 84
  25. China, US Strengthen Defense Ties, 1993 84
  26. Chinese Plan Air Defense for Three Gorges Project, 1993 84
  27. Deng Xiaoping's "Sister" Gets Military Promotion, 1993 84
  28. Chinese Military Leadership Deaths, 1993 85
  29. New Chinese Tank, 1993 85
  30. New Chinese Artillery-Locating Radar, 1993 85

VIII POPULATION 86

  1. Population and Deaths by Age Group in China, 1950-2030 86
  2. China's Share of World Population, 1990-2100 86
  3. Chinese Population Facts, 1992 86
  4. Comparisons of China's Long-Range Population Projection, 2100 87
  5. Distribution of Income by Province in China (Map), 1993 88
  6. China's Shifting Labor Force, 1993 89
  7. Distribution of China's Population (Map), 1992 89
  8. Chinese Employment, 1991-1992 89
  9. China's Unemployment, 1992 89
  10. Population Age 65 and Older in China, 1990-2020 90
  11. China and the World Population Clock, 1992 90
  12. China's Birth, Death, and Growth Rates, 1992 91
  13. Ratio of China's Minority Population to Total, 1964-1990 91
  14. Annual Chinese Urban and Rural Income, 1982-1990 92
  15. Annual Chinese Per Capita Housing Cost Compared to Total Living Cost, 1957-1990 92
  16. Chinese Wage and Nonwage Income, Individual Average and Total, 1978-1990 92
  17. China's Economy, Education, and Urban Effect on Birth Rate 93
  18. Ratio of Low and High Chinese Incomes Before and After Wage Reform 94
  19. Durable Goods in China, 1990 95
  20. China's Female Population, 1990 95
  21. Chinese State Council Cancels Peasants' Fees, 1993 95
  22. Mistakes in Collecting From Chinese Peasants, 1993 96
  23. Contract Employment in China, 1993 97
  24. Chinese Government Cutting Permanent Work Force, 1993 97
  25. China's Unemployment Insurance Decree, 1993 97
  26. Reemployment of Surplus Labor in Shanghai, 1993 97
  27. China's Industrial Injury Insurance System, 1993 98
  28. Chinese Government to Introduce Inheritance Tax, 1993 98
  29. China's Import Regulations for Bonded Groups, 1993 98
  30. Women in China's Work Force, 1992 98

IX CITIES AND URBANIZATION 99

  1. Improved Controls for China's Development Areas, 1993 99
  2. Trade Volume in China's Open Coastal Cities, 1993 99
  3. China Opens Eight Cities, Counties to Foreigners, 1993 99
  4. China Opens Additional Cities to Foreigners, 1993 99
  5. Preferential Policies for China's High-Tech Zones, 1993 100
  6. China Tests Real Estate Regulation, 1993 100
  7. China to Accelerate Development of Town and Township Enterprises, 1993 100
  8. Urbanization in China, 1965-1991 101
  9. Urban Growth in China, 1978-1991 101
  10. Housing in China, 1993 101
  11. Housing Problems in China, 1991 102
  12. Per Capita Living Space in China, 1978-1990 102
  13. China Emphasizes Improving Housing Management, 1993 102
  14. China's Unsold Urban Apartments, 1993 102
  15. Beijing City (Map), 1992 103
  16. China's Top Fifty Cities in 1992 104
  17. Beijing Leases State-Owned Shops to Individuals, 1993 104
  18. Beijing Municipal Officials, 1993 104
  19. Production in Beijing City, 1992 105
  20. Benxi, China, 1993 105
  21. Villagers Fight "Pitched Battle" in Guangdong, 1993 105
  22. Building Collapses in Guangzhou Province, 1993 106
  23. Hatian Island May Become Second Hong Kong, 1993 106
  24. Chinese State Council Approves Economic Zone in Hubei, 1993 106
  25. Waigaoqiao Free Trade Zone, 1993 106
  26. Shanghai, China, 1993 107
  27. Key Industrial Projects in Shanghai, 1993 107
  28. Shanghai's Pudong Area, 1992 107
  29. Shanghai Upgrades Commercial Center, 1993 107
  30. Foreign-Funded Enterprises in Shanghai, 1993 108
  31. Shanghai Expands Communications, 1993 108
  32. Tianjing's Small Economic Zones, 1992 108
  33. Zhoushan (Map), 1993 108
  34. Zhoushan, China, 1993 109
  35. Map of Zhoushan's High-Tech Development Zone, 1993 109
  36. Beijing and Tianjin Municipalities (Map), 1992 110
  37. Xian, China, 1993 110

X ECONOMY 111

  1. Indexes of China's National Economy, 1978-1992 111
  2. China's Economic Growth, 1978-1992 111
  3. China Economic Statistics, 1992 112
  4. Forecast Growth in China's GDP 114
  5. China's Gross Domestic Savings, 1990-1994 114
  6. China's 1992 Price Index 115
  7. China's Economic Plan, 1993 115
  8. Chinese Economic System Reform Tasks, 1993 116
  9. China's State Council's 1993 Economic Policy 117
  10. Proposed Basis for China's Market Economy, 1993 117
  11. Overview of Forecast for China's 1993 Economy 118
  12. China's Development Zones, 1993 118
  13. Adjusted Goals for China's Eighth Five-Year Plan 119
  14. Development of Eight Chinese Economic Spheres, 1993 119
  15. China's Macroeconomic Forecast, 1993 120
  16. China is Third in World Purchasing Power, 1993 121
  17. Impact of Fifteen Years of Economic Reform in China, 1978-1993 122
  18. Greater China's Investors Club, 1993 123
  19. Analysis of China's Economic Development Trend During the 1990s 124
  20. End-Use Distribution of China's GNP, 1980-1990 125
  21. Overview of China's Economic Growth in 1992 125
  22. Private Assets in China, 1992 125
  23. Free Markets in China, 1992 126
  24. Devaluation and China's Economy 126

XI RESOURCES 127

  1. Energy Related Resource Production in China, 1986-1993 127
  2. Industry Related Resource
  3. Production in China, 1986-1993 127
  4. China's Added Resource Capacity, 1993 127
  5. China's Added Resource Capacity, 1989-1992 127
  6. China's Investment in Raw Materials, 1993 128
  7. Distribution of China's Energy Resources, 1993 128
  8. China's Crude Oil Production, 1983-1992 128
  9. China's Crude Oil Exports to US, 1982-1992 128
  10. Chinese Oil Production by Field, 1991 129
  11. China's Government-Owned Crude Oil Refineries, 1993 129
  12. Chinese Oil Refinery Construction, 1992 129
  13. Oil Well Drilling in China, 1991-1993 130
  14. China's Tarim Basin Oil, Gas Reserves, 1993 130
  15. China's Oil Acreage Open for Bids, 1993 131
  16. Map of Foreign Bid Area in Tarim Basin, 1993 132
  17. Western China Exploration Area 132
  18. Tarim Basin Composite Stratigraphic Column 133
  19. Amoco's Chinese Contract Area 134
  20. Map of Liuhua 11-1 Structure 134
  21. Chinese Oil Areas Open for Foreign Bids, 1993 135
  22. New East China Sea Areas Open, 1993 135
  23. China's Estimated Oil Reserves and Production, 1992-1994 136
  24. China's Estimated Gas Reserves, 1992-1994 136
  25. China's Oil and Gas Reserves, 1991-1992 136
  26. China's Crude Oil Production by Type, 1991-1992 136
  27. Foreign Exploration in Bohai, 1992 136
  28. Major Coal Basins of Asia, 1993 137
  29. New Resource Projects for China, 1993 137
  30. China Expands Ethylene Capacity, 1993 138
  31. China's Petrochemical Construction, 1992 139
  32. Developments in Chinese Petro-chemicals, 1993 141
  33. Shanghai Petrochemical, 1990-1992 142
  34. China's Gold Output, 1992 142
  35. New Gold Mine Discovered in China, 1993 142
  36. China's Onshore Oil Development Plan, 1993 142
  37. China's Regulations on Land Petroleum Resource Development, 1993 143
  38. China's Newest Oilfield, 1993 143
  39. Mining in Northwest China, 1993 143
  40. Tellurium Mine Discovered in Sichuan, China, 1993 143
  41. Natural Gas Deposits Found in Xinjiang, China, 1993 143
  42. China's Newest Petroleum Company, 1993 144
  43. Shanghai Crude Oil Exchange, 1993 144

XII ENERGY 144

  1. China's Energy Consumption and Production, by Province, 1992 144
  2. China's Power Production, First Half 1993 144
  3. Plans for China's Energy Industry, 1993 145
  4. China's Nuclear Power Future, 1993 145
  5. Chinese Coal Industry, 1993 145
  6. China's Energy Shortage, 1993 146
  7. China's Energy Lifeline, 1993 146
  8. China's Rules on Electricity Use, 1993 147
  9. Chinese Accelerate Use of Geo-thermal Resources, 1993 147
  10. Chinese Nuclear Power Pressurized Water Reactors, 1993 147
  11. China's Largest Solar Power Station, 1993 147
  12. Asia's Largest Wind Power Station in China, 1993 147
  13. First Chinese Designed Reactor, 1993 147
  14. China's Deepest Geothermal Well, 1993 148
  15. Hydropower Stations in Fujian, 1993 148
  16. New Power Plants for Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, 1993 148
  17. Explosion at Zhejiang Power Plant, 1993 148

XIII INDUSTRY 149

  1. China's Industrial Output and Capital Investment, 1992 149
  2. Chinese Textile Production, 1986-1993 150
  3. China's Textile Output Compared, Jan 1992-Jan 1993 150
  4. China's Mechano-Electric Output Compared, Jan 1992-Jan 1993 150
  5. Production of Selected Items in China, 1986-1993 151
  6. Chinese Output of Major Industrial Products, 1992 151
  7. Chinese Industrial Output by Region, 1992 152
  8. Chinese Industrial Efficiency and Sales Rate by Region, 1992 153
  9. Chinese Industrial Profits and Productivity by Region, 1992 154
  10. Funds Turnover Rate in China, 1992 154
  11. Chinese to Introduce New Industrial Policies, 1993 155
  12. New Industrial Projects for China, 1993 156
  13. Contract Completion Rates of First Phase of Contracted Management in Provinces and Municipalities, 1988-1990 156
  14. Chinese Torch Program, 1993 157
  15. China's Law on Punishing Trademark Forgery, 1993 158
  16. China's Product Quality Law, 1993 158
  17. China's Anti-Illegal Competition Law, 1993 158
  18. China's Law on Punishing Trademark Counterfeiters, 1993 158
  19. China's Trademark Law, 1993 159
  20. China Adopts International Standards, 1993 159
  21. China and International Standards, 1993 159
  22. Sources of China's Industrial Output, 1981-2000 159
  23. China's Top Ten Joint Ventures, 1992 159
  24. Registered Firms in China, 1992 160
  25. China's Leading Industries in Pre-Tax Profits, 1992 160
  26. China's Leading Industries in Sales, 1992 160
  27. Productive Forces Promotion Centers in China, 1993 161
  28. Private Chinese Firms to Manage State Property, 1993 161
  29. Industrial Accident Deaths in China, 1991 161
  30. Mining Accidents in China, 1991 161
  31. Chinese Steel, 1992 161
  32. China's Non-Ferrous Metal Industry, 1993 162
  33. China's Iron, Steel Industry, 1978-1992 162
  34. China's Petrochemical Industry Infrastructure, 1993 162
  35. China's Petrochemical Fiber Industry, 1993 162
  36. China's Overstaffed Textile Industry, 1993 163
  37. Coal Industry to Transfer Miners, 1993 163
  38. Chinese Soft Drink Firm's Success, 1993 163
  39. Industrial Expansion for China's Anhui Province, 1992 163

XIV AGRICULTURE 164

  1. Output of Major Animal Products and the Amount of Livestock in China, 1992 164
  2. Output of Major Farm Products in China, 1992 164
  3. Chinese Agricultural Production and Percent of National Income, by Province, 1992 164
  4. Meat Output in China, 1992 165
  5. Chinese Announce System for Agriculture Control, 1993 165
  6. Chinese State Council Plan for Grain Areas, 1993 165
  7. China's Agricultural Technology Decree, 1993 166
  8. China's Agricultural Law Decree, 1993 166
  9. Chinese Farmers' Burdens Lifted, 1993 166
  10. China Establishes Nationwide Plant Quarantine Network, 1993 168
  11. Lower Taxes on Chinese Farm Products, 1993 168
  12. World Bank Loan for Grain Storage, 1993 168
  13. American Agronomists Honored by China, 1993 168
  14. New Wheat Strain Developed in China, 1993 169
  15. First Agricultural Futures Market in China, 1993 169
  16. New Farm Journal, 1993 169
  17. Quality of Chinese Food, 1993 169
  18. China Moves to Resolve Fertilizer Problem, 1993 169
  19. Agricultural Problems in China, 1993 169
  20. Declining Quality in Chinese Agriculture, 1993 170
  21. Poor Production Materials Anger Chinese Farmers, 1993 170
  22. Decline in Chinese Cotton Production, 1993 170
  23. Wine in China, 1993 170
  24. Spring Drought in China, 1993 170
  25. Snow Kills 300,000 Head of Cattle in China, 1993 170

XV TRANSPORTATION 171

  1. Volume of Transportation in China by Type, 1992 171
  2. China's Railroad Usage, 1986-1993 171
  3. China's Ten Best Highway Projects, 1993 171
  4. China's Six Best Waterway and Port Projects, 1993 172
  5. China's Coastal Navigation System, 1993 172
  6. China's Airlines, 1993 172
  7. China's Container Business, 1993 172
  8. Electrified Railways in China, 1993 173
  9. Expansion of Transportation Networks, 1993 173
  10. Chinese Investment in Railways, 1993 173
  11. Chinese Plan Increased Production of Railroad Equipment, 1993 173
  12. Chinese Plan Four Transnational Highways, 1993 173
  13. China's Railway Development (Map), 1986-1995 174
  14. China's Highway Development (Map), 1986-1995 175
  15. China's Six-Lane Super Highway, 1993 175
  16. Hong Kong-Guangzhou Super Highway (Map), 1993 176
  17. New Transportation Projects for China, 1993 176
  18. Percent Paved and Unpaved Chinese Roads, by Province, 1992 178
  19. China Ninth in World Shipping, 1992 178
  20. Chinese Shipping Industry, 1992 179
  21. China's Ports and Airports, 1992 179
  22. China's Planned Subways and Light Railways, 1992 180
  23. Rail Electrification in China, 1992 180
  24. Chinese Railway Expansion, 1992 181
  25. Cargo Transported in China, 1991-1992 181
  26. Air Travel in China, 1986-1991 181
  27. China's Rules for Airline Injury Compensation, 1993 182
  28. China's Air Safety Campaign, 1993 182
  29. China's Regulations on Local Airlines, 1993 183
  30. China's Longest Highway Tunnel, 1993 183
  31. China's Aviation Accidents, 1992 183
  32. Boeing 757 Hijacked to Taiwan, 1993 184
  33. Chinese Select MD-90 as Standard Aircraft in 1993 184
  34. China Orders US Jet Airliners, 1993 184
  35. China Leasing More Foreign Aircraft, 1993 184
  36. New Chinese Helicopter, 1993 184
  37. China's Shanghai Airlines Orders US Planes, 1993 184
  38. China's New Aerospace Industry Corporation, 1993 184
  39. New Airport Planned for Nanjing, China 185
  40. China Ocean Shipping Companies Group, 1993 185
  41. China's Purchase of US Vehicles, 1993 185
  42. New Hanjiang River Bridge in China, 1993 185
  43. China-Burma Highway Reopens, 1993 185

XVI COMMUNICATIONS 186

  1. Telephones in China, 1990-1995 186
  2. Market Shares of Digital Switching in China, 1993 186
  3. China's Telephones, by Province, 1992 187
  4. Subscription Television in China, 1993 187
  5. Satellite Receivers in China, 1993 188
  6. China's Law on Satellite TV Dishes, 1993 188
  7. Chinese Ban Satellite TV Dishes, 1993 188
  8. New Communications Projects for China, 1993 188
  9. Telecommunications Projects, 1993 189
  10. Telephone Lines in Asia, 1992-1997 189
  11. Chinese Telecommunications, 1993 189
  12. Chinese Newspaper Advertising Rates, 1993 190
  13. China's Revenue From Telecommunications, 1975-1990 191
  14. China's Post and Telecommunications Revenue, by Province, 1990 191
  15. Chinese View of Year's Top International News, 1993 191
  16. Glossary of Telecommunications Terms Used in China, 1993 192
  17. New Monthly, Shidian, Begins Publication, 1993 193
  18. Chinese Press Association Journal, 1993 193
  19. China's New English Language Paper, 1993 193
  20. China's First Tertiary Trade Newspaper, 1993 193
  21. China's First Afternoon Newspaper, 1993 193
  22. New Scientific Journal in China, 1993 194
  23. New Heads of Xinhua and Renmin Ribao, 1993 194
  24. Chinese Radio and Television Stations, 1992 194
  25. Chinese Information Industry Growing, 1993 194
  26. China's Advertising Industry, 1993 194
  27. New Chinese Regulations for Advertising, 1993 195
  28. China's Computerized Information Network, 1993 195
  29. China Prohibits Foreign Participation in Telecommunications, 1993 195
  30. First Chinese-Made Fiber Optic Cable, 1993 195
  31. China Has World's Longest Fiber Optic Cable, 1993 195
  32. Chinese Character Computer Scanner, 1993 195
  33. Chinese TV Broadcast of Pornographic Film Ends in Arrest, 1993 196
  34. Meteorological Modernization in China, 1993 196
  35. China's ADB Loan for Telecommunications, 1993 196
  36. China Agrees on Europe-Asia Communications Link, 1993 196

XVII TOURISM 197

  1. Chinese Tourists, 1992 197
  2. Chinese Tourism, 1992 197
  3. Chinese Tourists and Market Share, 1987-1991 197
  4. Chinese Tourism Receipts and Expenditures, 1987-1991 197
  5. China as a Tourist Destination, Earner, Spender, 1980-1991 198
  6. China's Hotel Capacity, 1985-1991 198
  7. Tourists in China, 1980-1990 198
  8. Hotels in China, by Province, 1990 199
  9. Most Popular Tourist Destinations in China, 1990 199
  10. Yangtze Gorges Tourist Area (Map), 1993 200
  11. China's 1990 Visitors, by Country of Origin 200
  12. Foreign Exchange Earnings From Chinese Tourism, 1980-1990 201
  13. China's Tourism Problems, 1993 201
  14. Foreign Investment in Chinese Tourism, 1993 201
  15. Guidelines for Developing Chinese Tourism, 1993 202
  16. China Uses Foreign Funds for Tourism, 1993 202
  17. New Airline for China's Tourism Industry, 1993 202
  18. Mao's Hometown to Promote Tourism, 1993 202
  19. Chinese Military Zone Becomes Tourist Site, 1993 202
  20. Chinese Landscape Tours, 1993 202
  21. China to Build Wine Capital 203
  22. China's First State Tropical Forest Park, 1993 203

XVIII FOREIGN TRADE 204

  1. China's Import-Export Trade, 1992 204
  2. China's Imports and Exports, 1986-1993 205
  3. China's Export Statistics, 1992 206
  4. China's Import Statistics, 1992 208
  5. China's 1992 Exports, by Area 209
  6. Major Items Traded Between China and Other Countries Via Hong Kong, Jan-Dec 1992 210
  7. China's Indirect Trade Via Hong Kong, 1988-1992 213
  8. Management Quotas for China's Exports, 1993 213
  9. China's Foreign Debt, 1981-1990 215
  10. China and GATT, 1993 216
  11. China Reduces Tariffs on 3,371 Items, 1993 217
  12. Assessment of Impact on Hong Kong of China Devaluing Renminbi, 1993 218
  13. China's Policy on Foreign Capital, 1993 220
  14. Chinese Issue New Customs Rules, 1993 220
  15. Some Chinese Import Restrictions to End, 1993-1996 221
  16. China's Foreign Trade Reform Plan, 1993 222
  17. New Border Trade Policies for China, 1993 222
  18. China's Offshore Borrowing Institutions, 1993 222
  19. Chinese and German Economic Cooperation, 1993 223
  20. China's New China Hong Kong Group, 1993 223
  21. China International Trust and Investment Corporation (CITIC), 1993 223
  22. New Head for CITIC, 1993 224
  23. US Exports to and Investment in China, 1989-1993 224
  24. Domestic and Foreign Price Comparison of Some Imported Chinese Commodities, 1993 225
  25. Major Trade Exhibitions in China, 1993 226
  26. China's Ranking Among World Trading Powers, 1992 231
  27. Chinese Machinery and Electronics Imports, Exports, 1992 231
  28. Chinese Trade Partners, 1992 231
  29. China's Top Ten Trading Partners, 1992 231
  30. Foreign Funded Firms in China, 1992 231
  31. What America Sold to China in 1992 232
  32. Quality of China's Export Commodities, 1992 232

XIX STATE BUDGET, FINANCE, AND SECURITIES 232

  1. China's Money Supply and Exchange Rates, 1987-1993 232
  2. Liabilities of China's Banks Abroad, 1987-1992 232
  3. Changes in Key Factors of China's Banks, 1986-1992 233
  4. Foreign Bank Deposits From Other Than Banks in China, 1987-1992 233
  5. Repayment Ability of Chinese State Banks, 1985-1992 233
  6. China's International Reserves, Excluding Gold, 1986-1992 234
  7. Comparison of China's Actual Money Supply and Planned Money Supply, 1983-1992 234
  8. China's Investment Growth Rates, 1983-1986 234
  9. China's Money and Credit Situation, 1978-1991 235
  10. Changes in Reserves of China's Banks, 1985-1992 235
  11. Changes in China's Concentration and Burden Ratios, 1979-1991 236
  12. Changes in China's Procurement and Transfer Payments, 1979-1991 236
  13. China's Financial Income and Extrabudgetary Funds, 1979-1989 236
  14. China's State Council on Investment in Fixed Assets, 1993 237
  15. Chinese Foreign Exchange Regulations Made Public, 1993 237
  16. Chinese Firms Need Approval to List Securities Overseas, 1993 238
  17. China's State Council on Unauthorized Fund Raising, 1993 238
  18. China Removes Controls on Purchases of Institutional Goods, 1993 238
  19. China's Corporate Bonds Regulations, 1993 239
  20. Tax Evasion in China, 1993 239
  21. Chinese Socialist Market Economy Terms, 1993 239
  22. Credit Cards in China, 1993 240
  23. China's Ten Billion Dollar Bank Fraud, 1993 241
  24. China's Bank of Communications, 1993 241
  25. Bank of China Overseas Branches, 1993 241
  26. Chinese Bank Corruption, 1993 241
  27. China's First Futures Clearing Company Established, 1993 241
  28. China's First Industrial Enterprise-Run Bank, 1993 242
  29. China's Largest Futures Company, 1993 242
  30. Bank of China Expands, 1993 242
  31. Bank of China, 1992 242
  32. Shanghai Securities Exchange, 1992 243
  33. CITIC's Balance Sheet, 1991 243
  34. Record Tax Revenue From China's Private Enterprises, 1992 243

XX SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 244

  1. National Achievements in Basic Science Research, 1993 244
  2. Nongovernmental Technology Services, 1993 244
  3. Chinese Nuclear Industry, 1993 244
  4. China's "Torch Programme," 1993 245
  5. Researchers in China, by Province, 1992 245
  6. Research Establishments in China, by Province, 1990 246
  7. Chinese Computer Industry, 1993 246
  8. Personal Computers in China, 1993 247
  9. China's "Yinhe-II" Super Computer, 1993 247
  10. China Buys Copyright on US Computer Books, 1993 247
  11. First Data Base Firm in China, 1993 247
  12. China's Newest Decisions on Science and Technology, 1993 248
  13. China's Law on Science and Technological Progress, 1993 248
  14. China's Scientific Law Decree, 1993 248
  15. Scientific Exploration of China's Tarim Basin, 1993 248
  16. Takala Basin TLD Radiometric Measurement Sites 249
  17. Chinese Academy of Sciences Names New Members, 1993 249
  18. Takala Basin Radiometric Anomalies 250
  19. China Imports Technology, 1992 250
  20. China Pushes Technology Importing, 1993 251
  21. China's Electron-Positron Collider, 1993 251
  22. China to Increase Theoretical Physics Funding, 1993 251
  23. New Chinese Telecommunications Satellites for 1994 251
  24. Chinese Satellite Retrieval Unit, 1993 251

XXI ENVIRONMENT 252

  1. Chinese State Council Circular on Environment, 1993 252
  2. New Environmental Projects for China, 1993 252
  3. Forests, Protected Areas, and Water Resources in China 252
  4. China Has 3,000 Major Polluters, 1993 253
  5. Chinese Soil Conservation Regulations, 1993 253
  6. Chinese Environmental Protection Committee, 1993 253
  7. Wildlife Protection in China, 1993 253
  8. China Establishes Environmental Protection Zones, 1993 253
  9. China Establishes Biosphere Nature Reserves Network, 1993 254
  10. China's Desert Control Program, 1992 254
  11. Chinese Tree Planting, 1993 254
  12. China's Desert Recovery Plan, 1993 254
  13. China Bans Rhinoceros Horn, Tiger Bone Trade, 1993 254
  14. China's Bears Under National Protection, 1993 255
  15. Panda Refuges in China (Map), 1993 255
  16. Afforestation in China, 1993 255
  17. Environmental Protection Committee of Eighth NPC, 1993 256
  18. Pollution in China's Rural Industry, 1993 256
  19. China's Pollution by Source, 1990 256
  20. China's Carbon Emissions by Fuel, 1990 256
  21. China's Carbon Emissions by Fuel, 2010 257
  22. China and Canada Sign Environmental Pact, 1993 257
  23. Water Shortage in China, 1993 257
  24. Soil Erosion in China's Yellow River Basin, 1993 257
  25. China's River Pollution Survey, 1993 258
  26. Chinese Tax Sulphur Dioxide Pollution, 1993 258

XXII REGIONAL 259

  1. Key Economic and Social Indicators of China's Provinces and Regions, 1992 259
  2. Production in Heilongjiang Province, 1992 261
  3. Changes in Prices in Heilongjiang Province, 1992 263
  4. Production in Jilin Province, 1992 263
  5. Changes in Prices in Jilin Province, 1992 265
  6. Guangxi Province (Map), 1993 266
  7. Guangxi Province Indicators, 1992 266
  8. Jiangsu Province Indicators and Industry, 1992 266
  9. Jiangsu Province (Map), 1993 267
  10. Production in Jiangsu Province, 1992 267
  11. Changes in Prices in Jiangsu Province, 1992 269
  12. Production in Jiangxi Province, 1992 269
  13. Guangdong Province and Bordering Areas (Map), 1992 271
  14. Changes in Prices in Jiangxi Province, 1992 272
  15. Production in Guangdong Province, 1992 272
  16. Changes in Prices in Guangdong Province, 1992 273
  17. Hunan Province (Map), 1993 274
  18. Hunan Province Indicators, 1992 274
  19. Production in Ningxia Autonomous Region, 1992 275
  20. Changes in Prices in Ningxia Autonomous Region, 1992 275
  21. Production in Gansu Province, 1992 276
  22. Changes in Prices in Gansu Province, 1992 277
  23. Production in Shandong Province, 1992 277
  24. Changes in Prices in Shandong Province, 1992 279
  25. Production in Liaoning Province, 1992 279
  26. Production in Inner Mongolia, 1992 280
  27. Changes in Prices in Inner Mongolia, 1992 282
  28. Production in Guizhou Province, 1992 282
  29. NPC Establishes Macao Special Zone, 1993 283
  30. China Approves Macao Basic Law, 1993 284
  31. First Chinese-Language Book on Macao Laws, 1993 284
  32. Chinese Advisers for Sino-British Talks, 1993 284
  33. China to Decide Which Hong Kong Legislators Remain in 1997 284
  34. New Members of NPC From Hong Kong, 1993 284

XXIII HEALTH AND MEDICINE 286

  1. China's Health Infrastructure, 1988-1992 286
  2. China's Growth is Slowing, 1993 286
  3. Nutrition and Health Behavior in China, 1974-2000 286
  4. Health Spending in China, 1990 286
  5. AIDS and HIV in China, 1993 287
  6. Parasites Affect 62 Percent of Chinese Population, 1993 287
  7. Drug Users in China, 1993 287
  8. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in China, 1992 287
  9. Human Plague in China, 1979-1991 287
  10. Neonatal Tetanus Deaths in China, 1991 288
  11. Malaria in China, 1988-1990 288
  12. Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever in China, 1956-1990 288
  13. Japanese Encephalitis in China, 1986-1990 288
  14. Mortality Rates by Cause in China, 1985-1990 288
  15. China's Doctors, 1970-1990 289
  16. China's Trained Medical Personnel, by Province, 1990 289
  17. China's Hospital Beds, 1970-1990 290
  18. Chinese Health Ministry to Fight Corruption, 1993 290
  19. Birth Control in China, 1993 290
  20. Unbalanced Birth Rates in China, 1993 290
  21. New Test Reduces Infant Mortality, 1993 291
  22. Chinese Longevity and Mortality, 1993 291
  23. AIDS and Venereal Disease Hotline in China, 1993 291
  24. Chinese Red Cross Society, 1993 291
  25. Chinese Red Cross Aids Angola, 1993 291
  26. New Developments in Traditional Chinese Medicine, 1993 291
  27. New Hepatitis Vaccine Developed in China, 1993 292
  28. Gene Treatment Center in Shanghai, 1993 292
  29. Beijing Bans Club for Homosexuals, 1993 292

XXIV EDUCATION 293

  1. Goals of China's Educational Development, 1993 293
  2. Illiteracy in China, 1993 293
  3. Changes in Admissions to Chinese Schools, by Type School and Subject, 1991-1992 293
  4. Admissions to China's Institutes of Higher Learning, by Type of Institution, 1991-1992 294
  5. Profile of Twenty Chinese Institutions of Higher Learning, 1993 295
  6. China's Top Five Universities, 1993 295
  7. China's New Teachers' Law, 1993 295
  8. China's Readers, by Province, 1990 296
  9. Chinese SEC Stops Fees for Compulsory Education, 1993 296
  10. China's Undergraduates, by Province, 1990 297
  11. New Entrance Examinations for Chinese Colleges, 1993 297
  12. Non-State Colleges Approved for Chinese Cities, 1993 298
  13. Chinese Government Proposes End to University Funding, 1993 298
  14. Payment to Chinese Teachers in Arrears, 1993 298
  15. "Capitalist-Sounding" Classes at People's University, 1993 298
  16. China's Television University, 1993 298
  17. China Opens School on Intellectual Property Rights, 1993 299
  18. Higher Education in Beijing, 1993 299
  19. Vocational Education in Inner Mongolia, 1993 299
  20. First Rural Enterprise College in Beijing, 1993 299
  21. Chinese Universities Cancel Military Training, 1993 299

XXV LAW AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE 300

  1. Armed Violence in China, 1990-1993 300
  2. Crime in China, 1988-1992 300
  3. Chinese Patents, 1991-1993 300
  4. Demonstrations and Strikes in China, 1992 300
  5. New Supreme People's Court President, 1993 301
  6. China's New Procurator General, 1993 302
  7. Illegal Underground Organizations in China, 1993 302
  8. Lawyers in China, 1993 302
  9. Civil Rights of Chinese Prisoners, 1993 302
  10. Protection of Prisoners' Rights in China, 1993 303
  11. Chinese Crackdown on Smuggling, 1993 303
  12. Emulation Weapons Banned, 1993 304
  13. Competition Law of China, 1993 304
  14. Internal and Judicial Affairs Committee of Eighth NPC, 1993 304
  15. Economic Crimes in China, 1992 304
  16. China Enters into Bilateral Judicial Treaty, 1993 304
  17. China Approves Judicial Accord With Cuba, 1993 305
  18. China's First Intellectual Property Law Firm, 1993 305
  19. China Accedes to Phonogram Protection Convention, 1993 305
  20. Chinese Publish Handbook on Foreign-Related Laws, 1993 305
  21. First Copyright Protection Group in China, 1993 305
  22. US Law Firm in China, 1993 306
  23. China's First Software Copyright Trial, 1993 306
  24. Catholic Bishop Released, 1993 306
  25. Wang Xizhe Released, 1993 306

XXVI CULTURE 307

  1. Chinese Cultural Laws and Regulation, 1993 307
  2. China's Ministry of Culture to Reform, 1993 307
  3. Chinese Regulations Against Distorting Biographical Facts, 1993 307
  4. Chinese State Council Committee for Disabled, 1993 307
  5. Literary Freedom in China, 1993 307
  6. China's Cultural Institutions, 1952-1989 308
  7. China's Minorities by Nationality, 1964 and 1982 308
  8. China's Minorities by Province, 1982 309
  9. Chinese Change to Ethnic Nationalities, 1993 312
  10. Minority Rights in China, 1993 312
  11. International Film and TV Firm Established, 1993 312
  12. China's Opera Festival, 1993 312
  13. China's First International Film Festival, 1993 312
  14. Minority Birth Rates in Four Chinese Autonomous Regions 313
  15. Books Highlighted in the Chinese Press, 1993 315
  16. Chinese Book Exhibition in Paris, 1993 317
  17. Encyclopedia of China Completed After Fifteen Years, 1993 317
  18. Chinese Minority Groups' Literature, 1993 318
  19. China Publishes Economic Atlas, 1993 318
  20. Chinese Efforts to Elevate Social Sciences, 1993 318
  21. China's Foreign Cultural Exchanges, 1992 318
  22. Chinese Ministry of Culture Issues Rule on Art Troupes, 1993 318
  23. New History Society in China, 1993 319
  24. China's First Intellectual Property Rights Court, 1993 319
  25. China's Relics Being Stolen, 1993 319
  26. North Korean Antiques Sold on Chinese Black Market, 1993 319

XXVII SPORTS 320

  1. Chinese Swimmer Sets Third World Record, 1993 320
  2. China Loses Bid for Year 2000 Olympics, 1993 320
  3. China Considers Bid for 2004 Olympic Games, 1993 320
  4. Chinese East Asian Games Participants, 1993 321
  5. China's Seventh National Games, 1993 321
  6. Shanghai Hosts East Asian Games, 1993 321
  7. China Bids for 2000 Paralympics, 1993 321
  8. Harbin Bids for 1996 Asian Winter Games, 1993 321
  9. Professional Boxing Debuts in China, 1993 322
  10. China's Cityford Cup Tournament, 1993 322
  11. China's Tennis Team for the Aged, 1993 322
  12. China's Sport-In-Art Exhibit, 1993 322
  13. ROC Delegation to 1993 East Asian Games 322
  14. Chinese Basketball Teams Tour Taipei, 1993 322
  15. Chinese Sports Association for Minority Nationalities, 1993 323
  16. New Sports Club in Beijing, 1993 323

XXVIII SOCIETY 323

  1. Major Changes in Chinese Social Psychology, 1993 323
  2. Cost of the Good Life in China, 1993 324
  3. Catholicism in China, 1993 325
  4. Beggars in China, 1993 325
  5. Survey on China's Social Development, 1993 325
  6. Chinese Women's Goals, 1993 325
  7. Commodities Exceed Demand in China, 1993 326
  8. Chinese Industrial Accidents Claim 15,000 in 1992 326
  9. Democratic Parties in China, 1993 326
  10. Chinese Farmers' Living Standards, 1992 327
  11. Rural Old Folks Homes in China, 1993 327
  12. Anti-Prostitution Drive in China, 1993 327
  13. Chinese Ministry of Public Security Cancels Charges, 1993 327
  14. China's Families, by Province, 1990 328
  15. China's Demoeconomic Density Indexes Related to Development and Urbanization by Province 328
  16. Enterprise Income Tax Law in China, 1993 330
  17. China's Consumption Tax, 1993 330
  18. Business Tax in China, 1993 330
  19. Chinese Law on Registered Accountants, 1993 331
  20. Value-Added Tax in China, 1993 331
  21. Law on Chinese Red Cross Society, 1993 331
  22. Red Cross Society of China, 1993 331
  23. Chinese Draft Law for Victims of Government Errors, 1993 331
  24. Chinese Revise Income Tax Law, 1993 332
  25. Consumers' Rights Protected in China, 1993 332
  26. Chinese Experimental Social Development Zone, 1993 332
  27. Chinese Celebrate Youth Day, 1993 332
  28. China Hosts UFO Forum, 1993 332
  29. Tibet's Grand Summons Ceremony, 1993 333
  30. Monk Becomes Fourteenth Saichi Living Buddha in Qinghai, 1993 333
  31. China to Host Fourth World Conference on Women 333
  32. Noteworthy Deaths in China, 1993 333
  33. China's First Model Agency, 1993 333
  34. China's First Sex Center Opens, 1993 334
  35. China's "Piece of the Motherland" Sales Campaign, 1993 334
  36. Mediation in Beijing, 1993 334
  37. Christians Celebrate Easter in Beijing, 1993 334

XXIX REGIONAL ECONOMIC REPORTS 335

  1. Inner Mongolia, 1993 335
  2. Liaoning, 1993 342
  3. Shanghai, 1993 350
  4. Shanxi, 1993 358
  5. Tianjin, 1993 367
  6. Zhejiang, 1993 374

 

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