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China Facts & Figures Annual

Edited by James Mulvenon

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Contents of Volume 21

ABBREVIATIONS OF TERMS xii

ABBREVIATIONS OF SOURCES xiii

I SURVEY 1

II SUMMARY OF SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC INDICATORS, 1996 2

  1. Map of China 2
  2. Summary of Current Economic Indicators, 1996 3
  3. Social and Population Indicators, 1996 3
  4. 1995 Economic Statistics 3

III CHRONOLOGY, 1996 5

IV GOVERNMENT 8

  1. China's Political Structure, 1996 8
  2. The Main National Leadership of the PRC, 1996 10
  3. The Main Provincial Leadership of the PRC, 1996 14
  4. Organizational Chart of State Organs of the People's Republic of China 17
  5. US Government Offices in China,1996 18
  6. Hong Kong Special Administratative Region (SAR) Preparatory Committee Members 19

V PARTY 25

  1. Text of Jiang Zemin's Eulogy of Deng 25
  2. Leadership of Chinese Communist Party, 1996 34
  3. Beijing Mayor at Discipline Inspection Session 35
  4. Xu Qixian: "Rule of Virtue Works, Failure to Do So Leads to Chaos"-An Allegorical Editorial About Party Discipline 38

VI MILITARY 42

  1. Official Defense Spending, 1978­1995 42
  2. Estimated Defense Spending,1983­1995 42
  3. Official vs. Real Defense Budget,1978­1995 43
  4. Estimated Defense Spending, Percent GNP 43
  5. Official Defense Spending, Percent Expenditure 44
  6. China's Military Leadership, 29 Jan 1997 44
  7. Military Region Commanders and Political Commissars, 1 Jan 1997 45
  8. Military Region Commanders and Political Commissars, 1 Jan 1997 45
  9. Chinese Military Regions and Districts Map 46
  10. China's Force Structure, 1996 47
  11. Achievements in 1996 Military Diplomacy 49
  12. Major Departments of the Chinese Military 51
  13. Command and Control Structure: Main PLA Forces to the Regimental Level 52
  14. Command and Control Structure: PAP, Reserve, and Militia Forces 53
  15. Party Control System: Main PLA Forces to the Regimental Level 54
  16. PRC Law on National Defense 54

VII INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 62

  1. Chronology of Sino-Taiwan Crisis, 1994­1996 62
  2. 1996 Yearender on PRC Foreign Relations 65
  3. Ren Xin: "1996: A Year of Diplomatic Feats for China" 68
  4. He Chong: "1996: A Year of Great Diplomatic Achievements for China" 72
  5. Shen Guofang Discusses PRC Diplomacy in 1996, 1997 74
  6. Yearender Reviews Improvement of Sino-US Ties in 1996 76
  7. "Extracts" of White Paper on Human Rights 77
  8. Sino-Russian Joint Communique 80
  9. "Yearender" on 1996 World Situation 84
  10. Yearender Examines 1996 Nongovernmental Diplomacy 87
  11. Symposium Reviews 1996, Highlights US "Hegemonism" 91
  12. Longitudinal and Latitudinal Locations of Spratly and Paracel Islands 94
  13. China Condemns Taiwan-Dalai "Splittism" 96
  14. Mei Dasi: "Shanghai Communique: Cornerstone of Sino-US Relations" 98
  15. China White Paper on Disarmament and Arms Control 101
  16. Agreement Between the Russian Federation, the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, the Republic of Tajikistan and the People's Republic of China on Confidence Building in the Military Field in the Border Area 114

VIII FOREIGN TRADE 120

  1. Wu Yi Comments on 1996 Achievements in Foreign Trade 120
  2. Foreign Trade Approaches $300 Billion in 1996 121
  3. 1995 Trade Patterns 122
  4. China's Indirect Trade Via Hong Kong 125
  5. Major Items Traded Between China and Other Countries Via Hong Kong in 1995 125
  6. Chinese Exports, 1988­1995 128
  7. Export and Import Growth, 1996 128
  8. Projected Exports and Imports, 1995­1998 129
  9. Imports and Exports as Percent of GNP, 1991­1995 129
  10. China's Foreign Trade Balance, 1986­1995 130
  11. External Balances, 1995­1998 130
  12. National Textile Exports, 1991­1996 131
  13. Steel Imports and Exports, 1985­1994 131
  14. China's Top Trading Partners, 1995 131
  15. Export Growth in Asia, 1994­1996 132
  16. Renminbi Exchange Rate, 1978­1995 132
  17. Chinese Exports to the US, 1988­1995 133
  18. Top US Imports From China, 1995 133
  19. Top US Exports to China, 1995 134
  20. US Trade Balance With China, 1986­1995 134
  21. China-US Exports and Imports, 1996 135
  22. China-US Trade, 1996 136
  23. US Trade Deficits, 1985­1995 136
  24. US Trade With China, 1986­1995 137
  25. US Trade With Greater China, 1986­1995 138
  26. PRC White Paper on Sino-US Trade Balance 138
  27. Tariff Reductions on Major US Exports to China 147
  28. Recent US Dumping Cases Filed Against Chinese Exports 150
  29. Japan's Imports From China, by Commodity 151
  30. Japan's Exports to China, by Commodity 152
  31. China's Trade With India, 1991­1996 153
  32. Taiwan's Indirect Mainland Investment 153
  33. Trends in Indirect "Cross-Straits" Trade Through Hong Kong 153
  34. Germany's Trade With China Continues to Grow 154
  35. China's Trade With Russia 155
  36. Total FDI in China, 1985­1995 155
  37. Foreign Investment Contracts, 1985­1995 156
  38. Foreign Investment, 1984­1994 156
  39. China's Utilization of Foreign Investment by Sector, 1995 157
  40. Contracted Foreign Investment by Province, City 1995 158
  41. Actual Use of Foreign Investment by Province, City 1995 159
  42. Portion of Foreign Investment in China by Sector, 1995 160
  43. Portion of Foreign Investment in China by Province/Municipality, 1995 160
  44. Foreign Investment in China, 1994 160
  45. Top Thirty Foreign Ventures by Sales, 1993 161
  46. Foreign Direct Investment in China, 1979­1995 164
  47. US Foreign Investment in China, 1979­1995 164
  48. Establishment of Investment-Related Laws 165
  49. Stock Market Performance, 1996 165
  50. China's Top Five Hundred Foreign-Trade Corporations, 1995 166
  51. Contact Information for China's Free Trade Zones 176
  52. Ethnic Chinese Billionaires in Asia 176
  53. PRC Foreign Exchange Control Regulations-PRC State Council Promulgation No. 193, 29 Jan 1996, State Council's Decision to Amend the "PRC Foreign Exchange Control Regulations" on 14 Jan 1997 178
  54. Major Overseas Chinese Businesses 184

IX ECONOMY 185

  1. Review of 1996 Top Ten Economic Highlights 185
  2. Main Points of 1997 Economic Restructuring Plans 186
  3. Report on Survey of Experts on 1996, 1997 Economy 191
  4. Article Reviews 1996 Economy, Sees Steady Growth in 1997 194
  5. Leading Economists View 1996 Economy, Recommendations 198
  6. Progress in Reform of State Enterprises in 1996 Outlined 201
  7. Retrospective on Economic Reform During 1996 202
  8. GDP at Constant Prices, 1984­1995 206
  9. GDP Per Capita, 1984­1995 207
  10. GDP Growth Rates, 1984­1995 207
  11. Regional GDP Growth Rates, 1990­1994 208
  12. Quarterly Growth in GDP, 1996 208
  13. Estimates of GDP Growth, 1996­1998 208
  14. GDP Growth Rates With Different Deflations of Industrial Output 209
  15. Summary of Official Growth Rates, 1979­1993 209
  16. Share of Contribution to GDP Growth Rate by Sector, and by Ownership in the Industrial Sector 209
  17. Consumer Price Index, 1984­1992 209
  18. Inflation, 1984­1996 210
  19. GDP vs. Inflation, 1984­1995 210
  20. Long-Term Debt, 1984­1993 210
  21. Index of Rural Household Income 211
  22. Unemployment, 1984­1992 211
  23. Male Unemployment, 1984­1992 212
  24. Female Unemployment, 1984­1992 212
  25. Unemployment, 1984­1992 212
  26. Unemployment, 1991­1995 213
  27. Male Unemployment, 1984­1991 213
  28. Female Unemployment, 1984­1991 213
  29. Average Income by Profession 214
  30. Per Capita Income, 1993 214
  31. Estimates of Rural Poverty, 1978­1990 215
  32. Consumer Goods in Average Family 215
  33. Chinese Cosmetics Consumption 215
  34. Per Capita Consumption of Cosmetics 216
  35. Reasons for State-Owned Enterprise Losses 216
  36. Russian and Chinese GNP (PPP), 1978­1994 216
  37. Russian and Chinese State Sector, 1978­1994 217
  38. Economic and Social Outcomes During Reform Transition 217
  39. Comparative Progress in Reforms 217
  40. Feng Xianzhi and Leng Rong, "Deng Xiaoping's Development Theories" 218
  41. Hang Bingjie: "Early Warning on Heavy Debts of State Enterprises" 229

X BUDGET AND FINANCE 233

  1. Report on Bank of China 1996 Foreign Currency Exchange 233
  2. Report on the Implementation of the Central and Local Budgets for 1996 and on the Draft Central and Local Budgets for 1997-By Liu Zhongli, Minister of Finance, at the Fifth Session of the Eighth National People's Congress on 2 Mar 1997 233
  3. Report on Total 1996 Revenues for Bank of China 244
  4. Deposits of Individual Savings Up Twelve Percent in 1996 244
  5. State Owned Enterprises, 1995 245
  6. Planned Investment in the State-Owned Sector, 1996­2000 245
  7. Key Statistics for Rural Enterprises, Jan-Jun 1996 246
  8. People's Bank of China Interest Rates 246
  9. Foreign Exchange Reserves, 1979­1995 247

XI INDUSTRY 247

  1. Aluminum Production, 1983­1992 247
  2. Beer Production, 1984­1993 248
  3. Passenger Car Production, 1983­1992 248
  4. Cement Production, 1983­1992 248
  5. Cigarettes Production, 1983­1992 249
  6. Cosmetics Production, 1992­1995 249
  7. Fabrics Production, 1983­1992 249
  8. Leather Footwear Production, 1983­1992 250
  9. Integrated Circuit Market, 1990­1996 250
  10. Integrated Circuits Volume, 1990­2000 251
  11. Meat Production, 1984­1993 251
  12. Paper Production, 1983­1992 252
  13. Radio Receivers, 1980­1992 252
  14. Refrigerator Production, 1983­1992 252
  15. Soap and Detergents Production, 1983­1992 253
  16. Steel Output Growth, 1987­1995 253
  17. Steel Output, 1986­1995 253
  18. Sugar Production and Consumption, 1984­1993 254
  19. Tire Production, 1983­1992 254
  20. Truck Production, 1983­1992 255
  21. Television Receivers, 1983­1992 255
  22. Washing Machine Production, 1983­1992 255
  23. Chinese Industrial Performance Index, 1980­1994 256
  24. Industrial Output by Type, 1980­1994 256
  25. Labor Force by Industry, 1952­1994 256

XII RESOURCES 257

  1. Total Energy Production, 1980­1992 257
  2. Total Energy Consumption, 1980­1992 257
  3. Energy Production by Type, 1980­1994 258
  4. Energy Consumption by Type, 1980­1994 258
  5. Energy Exports, 1980­1992 259
  6. Energy Imports, 1980­1992 259
  7. Final Energy Use by Energy Type 260
  8. Coal Mining, 1985­1995 260
  9. Electricity Production, 1980­1992 260
  10. Electricity Consumption, 1980­1992 261
  11. Gas Production, 1980­1992 261
  12. Gas Consumption, 1980­1992 261
  13. Liquid Fuels Production, 1980­1992 262
  14. Liquid Fuels Consumption, 1980­1992 262
  15. Solid Fuels Production, 1980­1992 262
  16. Solid Fuels Consumption, 1980­1992 263
  17. Energy Demand: High Efficiency Scenario 263
  18. Energy Demand: Slow Growth Scenario 263
  19. Coal Demand: High Efficiency Scenario 264
  20. Coal Demand: Slow Growth Scenario 264
  21. Natural Gas: High Efficiency Scenario 264
  22. Natural Gas: Slow Growth Scenario 265
  23. Oil Demand: High Efficiency Scenario 265
  24. Oil Demand: Slow Growth Scenario 265
  25. Power Demand: High Efficiency Scenario 265
  26. Power Demand: Slow Growth Scenario 266
  27. Importance of Nuclear Power 266
  28. Article Examines 21st-Century Oil Strategy 272

XIII AGRICULTURE 276

  1. Rural Economic Growth in 1996 Viewed 276
  2. Net Income of Farmers Up in 1996 277
  3. Agriculture in Fiscal Outlays, 1978­1994 277
  4. Major Agricultural Imports, 1995 277
  5. Grain Imports, 1992­1996 278
  6. US Agricultural Sales to China, 1992­1996 278
  7. Asses, 1986­1993 279
  8. Cattle, 1986­1993 279
  9. Cereals Production, 1984­1993 279
  10. Fertilizer Consumption, 1989­1993 280
  11. Fertilizer Production, 1989­1993 280
  12. Fish Catches, 1983­1992 280
  13. Horses, 1986­1993 281
  14. Mules, 1986­1993 281
  15. Oil Crops Production, 1984­1993 281
  16. Pigs, 1986­1993 282
  17. Sheep, 1986­1993 282

XIV ENVIRONMENT 283

  1. Li Peng Speech on Environment 283
  2. Billions to Be Spent in Green Crusade 286
  3. $170 Billion Anti-Pollution Project 286
  4. Prosperity Benefits Environment 287
  5. Funds Earmarked to Tackle "Grim" Environmental Situation 287
  6. State Earmarks One Percent of GDP to Curb Pollution 288
  7. Pollution Forecasts Plan 289
  8. "Substantial Measures" Taken for Pollution Control 289
  9. Struggle Against Air Pollution Noted 290
  10. Many Small Polluting Factories Shut Down in 1996 290
  11. Government to Speed Action on Environmental Protection 290
  12. More Investment in Environmental Protection 291
  13. Environment Conference Says Education Most Pressing Issue 291
  14. Song Jian on Closing Small Polluting Enterprises 292
  15. Environmental Bureau Cracks Down on "Foreign Garbage" 293

XV POPULATION 294

  1. Midyear Populations, 1987­1995 294
  2. Population Growth Rate, 1987­1995 294
  3. Estimated Midyear Population Structure, 1996 295
  4. China's Rural Population Age Structure, 1990 296
  5. China's Urban Population Age Structure, 1990 297
  6. Rural and Urban Population, 1990­1995 298
  7. Population Breakdown, 15+ 298
  8. Birth Rate, 1987­1995 298
  9. Total Fertility Rate, 1987­1995 299
  10. Total Fertility Rate, 1995 299
  11. Sex Ratio at Birth in Asia, 1993 300
  12. Death Rate, 1987­1995 300
  13. Life Expectancy at Birth in Asia, 1993 301
  14. Life Expectancy, 1993 301
  15. Infant Mortality in Asia, 1993 302
  16. Maternal Mortality, 1993 302
  17. XVI REGIONAL 303
  18. GNP Per Capita, by Province, 1994 303
  19. Real Income Growth, 1985­1994 304
  20. Comparison of Investments of Main Countries/Regions, by Region 304
  21. Fourteen Regions That Attracted the Most Foreign Investment, 1993 305
  22. Amount of Consumable Grain Per Province, 1993 305

XVII CITIES AND URBANIZATION 306

  1. Residential Housing and Investment in China, 1990­2000 306
  2. Average Monthly Rents in Asia, 1996 307
  3. Cities, 1980­1995 307

XVIII EDUCATION 308

  1. Public Expenditure on Education, 1980­1993 308
  2. Public Expenditure on Education, 1980­1993 308
  3. Public Expenditure on Education, 1980­1993 309
  4. Expenditure on Education in Asia, 1993 309
  5. Education Level, by Age Cohort, 1995 310
  6. Age Cohort Reaching Fifth Grade, 1992 310
  7. Age Group Education in Asia, 1994 311
  8. Illiteracy by Gender, 1982­1995 311
  9. Percentage of Illiterates by Gender 312
  10. Percentage of Illiterates, Rural vs. Urban 312
  11. Literacy Rate in Asia, 1994 312
  12. Adult Illiteracy Rates in Asia, 1995 313
  13. Public Libraries, 1993 313
  14. Library Collections by Category 313

XIX HEALTH AND WELFARE 314

  1. Average Life Expectancy, 1953­1996 314
  2. Annual Deaths Per 1,000 Children Aged 1-4, 1973­1995 314
  3. Number of Doctors, 1965­1994 314
  4. Population Per Doctor in Asia, 1993 315
  5. Ratio of Urban/Rural Doctors, 1965­1994 315
  6. Number of Hospital Beds, 1965­1994 316
  7. Ratio of Urban/Rural Hospital Beds, 1965­1994 316
  8. New AIDS Cases Reported, 1992­1993 317
  9. Drug Treatment Clients by Age, 1996 317
  10. Drug Treatment Clients by Gender, 1996 318
  11. Drug Treatment Clients by Occupation, 1996 318
  12. Drug Treatment Clients by Education Level, 1996 318
  13. Share of Imported Drugs, 1995 319
  14. Medical Equipment Imports, 1992­1995 319

XX SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 320

  1. Expenditure for R&D in Asia 320
  2. Expenditure for R&D in Asia 320
  3. Personnel Engaged in R&D in Asia 321
  4. Engineers and Technicians 321
  5. Engineers and Scientists by Field of Study 322
  6. Research by Field of Study 322
  7. Applications for Patents, 1990­1992 323
  8. Applications for Patents in Asia, 1990­1992 323
  9. Grants of Patents, 1990­1992 324
  10. Grants of Patents, 1990­1992 324
  11. Patents in Force, 1990­1992 325
  12. Chinese PC Market, 1992­2000 325

XXI COMMUNICATIONS 326

  1. Daily Newspapers, 1980­1992 326
  2. Daily Newspaper Circulation, 1980­1992 326
  3. Newspaper Circulation, 1993 327
  4. Telephones, 1989­1993 327
  5. Estimated Cellular Subscribers, 1993­2000 328
  6. Mobile Subscribers, 1989­1996 328
  7. Telefax Stations, 1989­1993 329
  8. Telephones Per 100 Population, 1980­1995 329
  9. Color Televisions Per 100 Urban Households, 1980­1995 329
  10. Television/Radio Receivers, 1970­1993 330
  11. Television Receivers in Asia, 1993 330
  12. XXII TRANSPORTATION 331
  13. Transportation of Goods, 1978­1994 331
  14. Growth Index of Transportation, 1978­1994 331
  15. Dependency on Passenger Traffic Modes 332
  16. Dependency on Freight Traffic Modes 332
  17. Selected Railway Data, 1952­1994 333
  18. Selected Highway Data, 1952­1994 333
  19. Railway Traffic, 1984­1993 334
  20. Merchant Shipping Tonnage, 1984­1993 334
  21. Motor Vehicle Imports, 1988­1994 335
  22. Motor Vehicle Imports, 1988­1994 335
  23. Transport Vehicle Imports, 1988­1994 336
  24. Transport Vehicle Imports, 1988­1994 336
  25. Railway Imports, 1988­1994 337
  26. US Share of Railway Imports, 1988­1994 337
  27. US Share of Railway Imports, 1988­1994 337
  28. Civil Aviation, 1952­1995 338
  29. Civil Aviation Imports, 1988­1994 338
  30. Civil Aviation Imports From US, 1988­1994 339
  31. Domestic Waterway Traffic, 1952­1994 339
  32. Waterway Transport Imports, 1988­1994 340
  33. Waterway Transport Imports, 1988­1994 340

XXIII LAW AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE 341

  1. Wei Jianxing Outlines 1996 Discipline Commission Work 341
  2. Newly Adopted "Presumption of Innocence" Principle 341
  3. "Counterrevolutionary Crime" Deleted From Penal Code 344
  4. Three Hundred Laws Passed Since Late Seventies 345
  5. Text of Lawyers' Law 346
  6. Tao Siju on Public Security Work, Policy for New Era 352
  7. Ren Jianxin Details Importance of "Strike Hard" Struggle 357
  8. New Office Set Up to Deal With Major Corruption Cases 360
  9. "Princeling" Given Suspended Death Sentence 360
  10. Beijing Cracks Down on Prostitution, Gambling 361
  11. Shooting Remains Preferred Means of Execution 361
  12. Text of Hong Kong Garrison Law 362
  13. PRC Set to Scrap Sixteen Hong Kong Laws 365

XXIV SOCIETY 366

  1. Uighur Muslim Unrest in West China (Xinjiang), 1996 366
  2. Analysis and Forecast of China's Social Situation for 1997 367
  3. Divorce Rate in Beijing, 1991­1994 376
  4. Agricultural Worker Insurance, 1979­1996 376
  5. Human Development Index, 1992 376
  6. Average Monthly Family Expenses 377
  7. Females in Labor Force, 1993 377
  8. Females in Post-Secondary Schools, 1993 377
  9. Females in Parliament, 1993 378
  10. Females in Ministerial Positions, 1993 378
  11. Spring Festival Gift Expenditures, 1996 378
  12. Spring Festival Gift-Giving Purposes, 1996 379
  13. Current Values, Life-Style, Attitudes of Young Chinese 279
  14. What is the Meaning of "Development"? 381
  15. How Will China's Problems be Solved? 381
  16. What Are the Most Important Factors? 381

XXV CULTURE 382

  1. 1996 Yearender on Cultural Development 382
  2. Survey on Beijing Citizens' Opinions on Politics 384
  3. Book Titles by UDC Class, 1993 388
  4. Book Production by UDC Class, 1993 388
  5. Cinemas, 1995 388
  6. Feature Films, 1975­1993 389

XXVI TOURISM 389

  1. International Tourism to China, 1984­1993 389
  2. Tourist Arrivals, 1989­1993 390
  3. Tourist Receipts, 1989­1993 390
  4. Shanghai Low-Season Occupancy Rates, 1996 390
  5. Shanghai High-Season Occupancy Rates, 1996 391
  6. Tourist Arrivals by Region of Origin 391
  7. Top PRC Destinations for Foreigners, 1996 391

 

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