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China Facts & Figures Annual

Edited by James Mulvenon

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Contents of Volume 23

CONTENTS

ABBREVIATIONS OF TERMS xii

ABBREVIATIONS OF SOURCES xiii

I SURVEY 1

II SUMMARY OF SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC INDICATORS 2

  1. Summary of Current Economic Indicators, 1996 2
  2. Social and Population Indicators, 1996 2
  3. Summary of Indicators, 1996 2

III CHRONOLOGY, 1997 3

IV GOVERNMENT 10

  1. Grassroot Units, 1995 10
  2. Leadership of the PRC Government, October 1997 11
  3. Administrative Divisions in China, 1996 19

V PARTY 20

  1. Text of CPC Constitution 20
  2. Leadership of the Chinese Communist Party, October 1997 36
  3. Full Members of the Fifteenth Central
  4. Committee of the Chinese Communist Party 37
  5. Alternate Members of the Fifteenth Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party 45
  6. Jiang Zemin Fifteenth Party Congress Report 50
  7. Text of Zhao Ziyang Letter to Jiang Zemin 80

VI MILITARY 84

  1. China's Military Leadership, 29 Jan 1998 84
  2. Military Region Commanders and Political Commissars, 29 Jan 1998 85
  3. China's Force Structure, 1998 86
  4. Official Defense Spending, 1978-97 88
  5. Official Defense Spending, Percent GNP 89
  6. Official and Adjusted Defense Budget, 1978-97 89
  7. PRC Law on National Defense 90
  8. Kuan Cha-Chia: "Why Are There No Military Officers in the Politburro Standing Committee?-Central Military Commission's New Reform Plan" 97
  9. Adjustments to Military Leadership Viewed 104
  10. Major Changes Made to PLA Hierarchy 109

VII INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 115

  1. Achievements in International Relations, 1997 115
  2. Backgrounder on PRC Diplomacy 119
  3. Qian Qichen Interview on 1997 Diplomacy 122
  4. Liu Huaqiu, Director of the Foreign Affairs Office under the State Council, Views Nation's Foreign Policy 127
  5. Renmin Ribao Yearender on International Affairs 133
  6. Yearender Reviews 1997 Cross-Strait Ties 136
  7. Text of Qian Qichen UN Address 139
  8. Yearender Reviews Year of Summit Diplomacy 143
  9. China's New Controls on Nuclear Exports 144
  10. 1 July 1997 Hong Kong Reversion Text Of Speech By H.E. President Jiang Zemin of the People's Republic of China at the Ceremony for the Handover of Hong Kong Held by the Chinese and British Governments, 1 July 1997 146
  11. Text of Prince Charles Speech at Handover Ceremony 147
  12. Text of Tung Chee-hwa Speech at Celebration Party 148
  13. Text of Jiang Zemin Speech at Beijing Rally 151
  14. Text of Jiang Zemin Speech at the Ceremony Marking the Establishment of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, 1 July 1997 155
  15. Text of Li Peng's Speech at Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Swearing-In Ceremony 158
  16. Text of Martin Lee Speech on LegCo Balcony 159
  17. 1997 Sino-US Summit Text of Jiang Zemin Speech at White House Banquet 160
  18. Text of Jiang Zemin Speech at US-China Business Council Dinner 161
  19. Text of Jiang Zemin Speech at Harvard 164
  20. Text of Jiang's Speech to American- China Society, 30 October 1997 168
  21. Text of Sino-US Joint Statement 172
  22. Text of Jiang Zemin Speech to Russian Duma 175
  23. Text of Sino-Russian Joint Statement 179
  24. Text of Jiang's Speech at APEC Summit 182
  25. Text of Jiang's Speech at East Asian Summit 184
  26. Boundary Disputes, 1996 186
  27. Land Borders, 1996 186

VIII FOREIGN TRADE 187

  1. Wu Yi: Yearender on Foreign Trade 187
  2. Chinese Exports, 1988-1996 191
  3. Projected Exports and Imports, 1997-1998 191
  4. China's Top Trading Partners, Jan­Jun 1997 192
  5. Analysis of Larger Predicted Trade Surplus in 1997 192
  6. Yearender on Sino-US Trade Ties 197
  7. MOFTEC Vice-Minister on Sino-US Trade Relations 199 US Trade Deficits with China and Japan, 1985-1997 200
  8. Sino-Japanese Trade, 1985-1996 200
  9. Sino-Japanese Trade, 1992-1997 201
  10. Sino-Russian Trade, 1992-1996 201
  11. Anti-Dumping Investigations Initiated Against China, 1994-1996 202
  12. Anti-Dumping Investigations, 1988-1996 202
  13. PRC Exports 34 Aircraft in 1997 202
  14. Trade in Toilet Fixtures, 1990-1995 203
  15. Foreign Direct Investment Agreements, by Sector, 1995 203
  16. World versus US Foreign Direct Investment in China, 1979-1996 204
  17. Yearender on Taiwan Investment in Mainland China 204
  18. Utilized Foreign Investment from Greater China, 1995 206
  19. US Investment in China, by Type, 1994-1995 206
  20. Contracted versus Utilized Foreign Direct Investment in China, 1985-1996 207
  21. China's Top Five Hundred Foreign Trade Corporations, 1997 208
  22. Major Vehicle and Engine Joint-Venture and Cooperative Projects in China, 1997 217

IX ECONOMY 219

  1. CASS Study on Economy, Forecasts 219
  2. Liu Guoguang on Current Economic Situation 221
  3. Gross Domestic Product, 1984-1996 225
  4. Share of Contribution to Gross Domestic Product Growth Rate by Sector, and by Ownership in the Industrial Sector 225
  5. Gross Domestic Product Growth Rates, 1984-1996 226
  6. Estimates of Gross Domestic Product Growth, 1997-1998 226
  7. Yearender Views Reform of State Enterprises 227
  8. Xinhua Economic Review on State Enterprises 227
  9. People's Bank Party Secretary on Public Ownership of State-Owned Enterprises 229
  10. Renmin Ribao on Using Foreign Capital 235
  11. Chinese Cosmetics Consumption, 1996 237
  12. Cosmetic Sales, 1996 237
  13. Average Raw Silk Price, 1992-1995 238

X BUDGET AND FINANCE 238

  1. Yearender on National Financial Stability 238
  2. NPC Committee Examines 1996, 1997 Budgets 239
  3. Finance Minister Speaks at Fiscal Conference 243
  4. Total Government Expenditure, 1991-1995 245
  5. Total Government Revenue, 1991-1995 246
  6. Rate of Revenue and Expenditure Change, 1981-1995 246
  7. Sources of Government Expenditure, 1991-1995 247
  8. Sources of Government Revenue, 1991-1995 247
  9. Central Budget Deficit, 1982-1995 248
  10. Renminbi Exchange Rate, 1990-1995 248
  11. Foreign Exchange Reserves, 1979-1996 249
  12. Funds from International Organizations, 1994-1995 249
  13. Government Price Subsidies, 1980-1995 250
  14. Reporter Examines PRC Monetary Policy for 1998 250
  15. Bank Official on PRC Moderately Tight Monetary Policy 251 PRC Issues 241
  16. Billion Yuan in Treasury Bonds by End 1997 252
  17. Xinhua on Central Bank's Interest Rate Cut 252
  18. PRC Banks Aim at Higher Loan Efficiency 254

XI INDUSTRY 255

  1. Industrial Output Share by Ownership Type, 1990-1995 255
  2. Sales of Top Five Automobile Manufacturers in 1996 255
  3. Automobile and Farm Vehicle Production, 1985-1996 256
  4. Automotive Production Investment, 1986-1995 256
  5. Beer Production, 1985-1995 257
  6. Bicycle Production, 1985-1995 257
  7. Calcium Carbide Production, 1985-1995 257
  8. Camera Production, 1985-1995 258
  9. Caustic Soda Production, 1985-1995 258
  10. Cement Production, 1983-1996 258
  11. Cigarette Production, 1985-1995 259
  12. Coke Production, 1985-1995 259
  13. Detergent Production, 1985-1995 259
  14. Electric Fan Production, 1985-1995 260
  15. Fabric Production, 1983-1996 260
  16. Ferro-Alloy Production, 1985-1995 260
  17. Finished Iron Ore Production and Import, 1989-1996 261
  18. Paper Production, 1983-1995 261
  19. Passenger Car Production, 1983-1996 262
  20. Pesticide Production, 1985-1995 262
  21. Plastic Production, 1985-1995 262
  22. Polymer Consumption, 1991-2000 263
  23. Radio Receiver Production, 1980-1995 263
  24. Refrigerator Production, 1983-1996 264
  25. Salt Production, 1985-1995 264
  26. Sewing Machine Production, 1985-1995 265
  27. Soda Ash Production, 1985-1995 265
  28. Steel Import Tariffs, 1996 265
  29. Steel Output, 1986-1996 266
  30. Net Profits of Selected Steel Producers, 1995-1997 266
  31. Minister on Steel Production in 1997 266
  32. Sugar Production and Consumption, 1984-1996 268
  33. Sulfuric Acid Production, 1985-1995 268
  34. Three-Wheel and Four-Wheel Farm Vehicle Production, 1990-1996 269
  35. Tire Production, 1983-1995 269
  36. Top Motorcycle Producers in the PRC, 1997 270
  37. Top Ten Manufacturers of Four-Wheel Farm Vehicles 271
  38. Tractor Production, 1985-1995 271
  39. Television Receiver Production, 1980-1995 271
  40. Truck Production, 1983-1995 272
  41. VCR Production, 1985-1995 272
  42. Vegetable Oil Production, 1985-1995 272
  43. Washing Machine Production, 1983-1995 273
  44. Watch Production, 1985-1995 273

XII RESOURCES 274

  1. Yearender on China's Energy Industry 274
  2. State Sets 1998 Oil, Gas Production Goals 275
  3. Total Energy Consumption, 1980-1995 276
  4. Total Energy Production, 1980-1996 276
  5. Energy Consumption, by Type, 1980-1995 276
  6. Energy Production, by Type, 1980-1995 277
  7. Energy Exports, 1980-1994 277
  8. Energy Imports, 1980-1994 277
  9. Coal Mining, 1985-1996 278
  10. Electricity Production, 1980-1995 278
  11. Gas Production, 1980-1995 278
  12. Feature on PRC's Oil Industry Prospects 279
  13. Additional 1.5 Billion Tons Of Oil, Gas Expected in 1997 282
  14. Prospects for Developing On-Shore Oil, Natural Gas Resources 282
  15. PRC Develops Offshore Natural Gas
  16. Areas 283
  17. Kazakhstan, China Sign Multibillion Dollar Oil Deal 284
  18. PRC Nuclear Industry Begins to Enter International Market 284
  19. China's Nuclear Industry Achieves Great Results 285
  20. PRC Nuclear Industry Becoming "Powerhouse" 286
  21. Nuclear Industry Using Foreign Technology 288
  22. PRC Regulations on Nuclear Exports 289
  23. PRC's Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy 292
  24. Article on Sino-US Nuclear Cooperation 294
  25. Minister on Importance of Ocean Resources 295
  26. Land Use, 1996 297
  27. Natural Resources, 1996 297

XIII AGRICULTURE 298

  1. Commentary on Agricultural Development 298
  2. Public Expenditure on Agriculture, 1980-1994 305
  3. Agriculture in Fiscal Outlays, 1978-1995 305
  4. PRC Sets Guiding Principles for Agriculture in 1998 306
  5. Asses, 1986-1995 307
  6. Cattle, 1986-1995 307
  7. Cereals Production, 1984-1995 308
  8. Fertilizer Production, 1989-96 308
  9. Fish Catches, 1985-1996 308
  10. Fruit, 1984-1996 309
  11. Horses, 1986-1995 309
  12. Meat Production, 1984-1995 309
  13. Mules, 1986-1995 310
  14. Oil Crops Production, 1984-1996 310
  15. Pigs, 1986-1996 310
  16. Sheep and Goats, 1986-1996 311

XIV ENVIRONMENT 311

  1. Geography, 1996 311
  2. New Energy Resources Improving Environment 311
  3. Land Characteristics, 1996 312
  4. Jiang Zemin Welcomes 1997 China Environmental Forum 312
  5. International Environmental Agreements, 1996 313
  6. China, US Protecting Environment 313
  7. Li Peng on Three Gorges Project: "Work for Smooth Completion of the Second-Phase Three Gorges Immigration Project" 313
  8. Jiang Speech at Three Gorges Dam Ceremony 319
  9. Mou Fengjing, Liu Kang, And Ling Weijia: "Unswervingly Carry Out the Policy of Promoting Development While Carrying Out the Project of Relocating People-An Investigation on the Work of Relocating People in the Three-Gorges Dam Areas in Chongqing for the Past Five Years" 321
  10. Seventy Environmental Protection Projects Launched 324
  11. Defense Industry Contributes to Environment Protection 324
  12. Funds from Developing Countries for Environment Requested 325
  13. PRC to Coordinate Economic Growth, Environment Protection 325
  14. Safety Levels at PRC Nuclear Power Stations Noted 326

XV POPULATION 327

  1. Midyear Populations, 1980-1995 327
  2. Population Growth Rate, 1987-1996 327
  3. Population Breakdown, 1995 328
  4. Age Structure, 1996 328
  5. Rural and Urban Population, 1990-1995 328
  6. Sex Ratios, 1996 329
  7. Male and Female Population, 1990-1995 329
  8. Ethnic Groups, 1996 329
  9. Birth Rate, 1987-1996 330
  10. Death Rate, 1987-1996 330
  11. Family Planning under Market Economy 331
  12. Population Conference Reaffirms One-Child Policy 333
  13. Yu Changhong and Zhang Yifei, "China Projects Zero Population Growth in Mid Twenty-first Century" 334

XVI REGIONAL 335

  1. Total Population, Birth Rate And Death Rate, 1995 335
  2. Utilized Foreign Capital, 1994-95 336
  3. Health Care Institutions, Beds, and Personnel, 1995 336
  4. Research Institutions, 1995 337
  5. Primary and Secondary Schools, 1995 338
  6. Telephone Density, by Municipality and Province, 1994 338

XVII CITIES AND URBANIZATION 339

  1. Zhang Haoruo: "Quicken the Pace of Comprehensive Urban Reform" 339
  2. Prime Apartment Values, 1996-1997 345
  3. Cities, 1980-1995 345
  4. Garbage Disposal, 1980-1995 345
  5. Salary Levels in Shanghai, 1997 346
  6. Disposal of Night Soil, 1980-1995 346
  7. Number of Parks and Zoos, 1980-1995 346
  8. Length of Paved Roads, 1980-1995 347
  9. Public Restrooms per 10,000 Population, 1980-1995 347
  10. Public Transportation Vehicles, 1980-1995 347
  11. Urban Access to Tap Water, 1980-1995 348
  12. Achievements in Managing Transient
  13. Population 348

XVIII EDUCATION 351

  1. White Paper on Right to Education 351
  2. Public Expenditure on Education, 1980-1995 352
  3. Facts and Figures for 1996: Education 352
  4. Roundup on Role of Science, Education 353
  5. Educational Facilities, 1996 356
  6. Politburo's Li Lanqing Discusses Education 357
  7. Li Lanqing Talks about Tasks for Education 358
  8. Primary and Secondary Schools, 1980-1995 359
  9. Important of Education for All in China 360
  10. PRC Encourages Good Education in Primary, Secondary Schools 360
  11. Primary and Secondary Student Enrollment, 1980-1995 361
  12. Primary and Secondary New Student Enrollment, 1980-1995 362
  13. Full-Time Primary and Secondary Teachers, 1980-1995 362
  14. Primary and Secondary Student-Teacher Ratio, 1980-1995 363
  15. Primary and Secondary Graduates, 1980-1995 363
  16. Post-Secondary Schools, 1980-1995 363
  17. Post-Secondary Student Enrollment, 1980-1995 364
  18. Post-Secondary New Student Enrollment, 1980-1995 364
  19. Post-Secondary Full-Time Teachers, 1980-1995 364
  20. Post-Secondary Student-Teacher Ratio, 1980-1995 365
  21. Post-Secondary Graduates, 1980- 1995 365
  22. Post-Secondary Graduates, by Field of Study, 1995 365

XIX HEALTH AND WELFARE 366

  1. CPC, State Council Decision on Health Care Outlined 366
  2. CPC, State Council Issue Decision on Public Health Reform 369
  3. Public Expenditure on Pensions and Welfare, 1980-1995 381
  4. Hospitals, 1980-1995 381
  5. Health Care Facilities, 1995 382
  6. Health Spending, per Capita, 1993 382
  7. Sources of Health Spending, 1978-1993 382
  8. Hospital Beds, 1980-1995 382
  9. Number of Doctors, 1965-1996 383
  10. Doctors per 1000 Population, 1980- 1995 383
  11. Health Care Personnel, 1980-1995 383
  12. Survey on Mental Health of Chinese Youth 384
  13. PRC Blood Donation Law Adopted 385

XX SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 388

  1. China Selects Top Ten Research Results 388
  2. Jiang Zemin Stresses Basic Scientific Research 389
  3. Funding for Scientific and Technical Research, 1990-95 (percent GNP) 390
  4. Funding for Scientific and Technical Research, 1990-95 (bn RMB) 390
  5. Research Institutes, 1990-1995 390
  6. Certified International Patents, by Class, 1995 391
  7. Top Personal Computer Vendors in Hong Kong and China, 1997 391

XXI COMMUNICATIONS 392

  1. Telecommunications Industry Grows Thirty Percent in 1997 392
  2. Local Share of Telecommunications Investment, 1990-1994 392
  3. Growth in Telecommunications and Gross Domestic Product, 1980-1993 392
  4. Telecommunications Revenue, 1990-1994 393
  5. Telecommunications Revenue Growth, 1991-1994 393
  6. Total Telephone Lines, 1983-1994 393
  7. Total Telephone Line Growth, 1984-1994 394
  8. Long Distance Lines, 1991-1995 394
  9. Long Distance Calls, 1983-1994 394
  10. Long Distance Call Growth, 1984-1994 395
  11. Urban Telephone Lines, 1983-1994 395
  12. Urban Telephone Line Growth, 1984-1994 395
  13. Urban Switchboard Capacity, 1988-1995 396
  14. Shanghai Telephone Subscribers, 1985-1994 396
  15. Shanghai Telephone Waiting List, 1985-1994 396
  16. Rural Telephone Lines, 1983-1994 397
  17. Rural Telephone Line Growth, 1984-1994 397
  18. Rural Switchboard Capacity 1988-1995 397
  19. Telephones, 1989-1995 398
  20. Urban vs. Rural Telephones, 1989-1995 398
  21. Telephones per 100 Persons, 1980-1995 398
  22. Fiber-Optic Lines, 1988-1995 399
  23. Mobile Telephone Subscribers, 1991-1995 399
  24. Cable and TV Access, 1997 399
  25. Users of Public Datacom in China, 1993-1997 400
  26. Telephone Exchange Capacity To Reach 170 Million Lines 400
  27. Yearender on Computer Networks 401
  28. Impact of Liberalization on Information Industry Discussed 403

XXII TRANSPORTATION 406

  1. Dependency on Freight Traffic Modes, 1952-1996 406
  2. Dependency on Passenger Traffic Modes, 1952-1996 406
  3. Airport Runways, 1995 406
  4. Major Civil Airports, 1985-1995 407
  5. Civil Aircraft, 1985-1995 407
  6. Civilian Aviation Passenger Traffic, 1985-1995 407
  7. Civil Aviation Passengers, 1952-1995 408
  8. Roundup Reviews Airport Construction 408
  9. Selected Highway Data, 1978-1996 410
  10. Official on Highway Law, Maintenance Funds 410
  11. Circular Urges Localities to Stop Illicit Highway Fines 411
  12. Transportation of Goods, 1978-1996 413
  13. Minister Han Zhubin Reports on Railway Sector Growth 414
  14. Selected Railway Data, 1952-1996 415
  15. Merchant Marine, 1996 415
  16. Cargo Volume at Major Seaports, 1980-1995 416
  17. Communications Construction to Use More Foreign Funds 416
  18. State Plans Special Fund for Transportation Industry 418

XXIII LAW AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE 419

  1. Lawyers, 1985-1995 419
  2. Court Role in Anti-Corruption Campaign 419
  3. Gross Undersupply of Qualified Personnel in Legal Profession 422
  4. Anti-Narcotics Campaign Successful in 1997 423
  5. Official on Policy to Protect High-Tech Intellectual Property Rights 424
  6. Intellectual Property Rights' Protection for Information Superhighway 428
  7. Prison System Reform Deepened 431
  8. Renmin Ribao Editorial on Rule by Law 433
  9. Article on New PRC Criminal Law 435
  10. Criminal Law Amended to Protect National Military Interests 437
  11. Text of Discipline Punishment Procedures 441
  12. New Regulations Codify PRC Internet Practice 442
  13. PRC Administrative Supervision Law 446
  14. Price Law of People's Republic of China 451
  15. PRC Construction Law 456
  16. Partnership Enterprise Law 466

XXIV SOCIETY 474

  1. CASS Research Group on Social Situation for 1996, 1997 474
  2. Marriages, 1985-1995 483
  3. Divorces, 1985-1995 483
  4. Economic, Social and Cultural Rights Outlined 483
  5. Household Affluence 487
  6. Urban Living Expenses 487

XXV CULTURE 487

  1. 1997 Yearender on Cultural Development 487
  2. Cultural Indicators, 1996 489
  3. Evolution, Impact of "Clash of Civilizations" Theory 490
  4. Thoughts on Resisting Western Colonial Culture 495
  5. Ensuring Economic, Social and
  6. Cultural Rights 498
  7. Xing Bensi on Building Socialist
  8. Culture 503
  9. Art and Culture Institutions, 1996 505
  10. Book Titles, by UDC Class, 1990-1995 505
  11. Book Production, by UDC Class, 1996 506
  12. Books, 1980-1995 506
  13. Feature Films, 1975-1996 506
  14. Magazines, 1980-1995 507
  15. PRC Closes Down 573 Newspapers,
  16. Periodicals in 1997 507
  17. Newspaper Publishers, 1980-1995 507
  18. XXVI TOURISM 508
  19. Tourism in PRC Continues to Grow 508 Increase in Tourism in China Noted 508
  20. Commentator on Developing Tourist
  21. Industry 508
  22. Tourist Receipts, 1989-1996 509
  23. International Tourism Earnings Rise
  24. Fourteen Percent 510
  25. Tourist Arrivals, 1985-1996 510
  26. Qian Qichen Urges Tourist Industry to Develop Further 510
  27. Tourist Arrivals, by Category, 1985-1995 511

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