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Russia and Eurasia Armed Forces Review Annual*

Edited by Theodore Karasik

*formerly USSR Armed Forces Review Annual

SAFRA Contents

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CONTENTS

Charts, Tables, Maps and Figures vi

Preface ix

Abbreviations x

I MILITARY INDICATORS, 1991 1

II MILITARY CHRONOLOGY, 1991
January 1991-December 1991 35

III CONTEMPORARY ANALYSES, 1991

  1. The Soviet Legacy. Nationalism, Ideology and the New CIS Militaries Thomas M. Nichols 50
  2. The Defense Council and the Evolution of the Soviet National Security Decision-making Apparatus, 1985-1992. James Derleth 73
  3. The August Coup and the Soviet Armed Forces Ingmar Oldberg 87
  4. Arms and Society. Russia's Revolutionary Bellweather? C. G. Jacobsen 101
  5. Conversion of the Ex-USSR Military-Industry in an Era of Arms Reductions Alexei Iziumov 124
  6. A New Stage in Military Policy Jacob W. Kipp 145
  7. Soviet Air and Air Defense Forces and Their Successors. Lessons from the Gulf War. James T. Quinlivan 165
  8. The Implication of Potential Changes in Soviet Military Doctrine for the R&D and Acquisition Process. William L. Berkholz 185
  9. The Russian Diaspora. New National Security Dimensions and the Road to Intervention David Beachley 205
  10. Ukraine's Role in the Demise of the Soviet Armed Forces. John (Ivan) Jarowskii 216

IV HISTORY

Soviet Bridging and Steam-Crossing Equipment Arthur G. Volz 234

 

V DOCUMENTS

  1. Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE) 245
  2. Stephen M. Meyer, Testimony Before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, 6 June 1991 344
  3. Edward L. Warner III, The Role of the Military in Soviet Politics. Senate Foreign Relations Subcommittee on European Affairs, June 6, 1991 349
  4. Shootdown. Izvestiia Examines the KAL-007 Tragedy Andrei Illesh 357  

VI BIBLIOGRAPHY

Russia and Eurasia Armed Forces, 1991 Kathleen Rodgers 403

CHARTS, TABLES, MAPS, AND FIGURES

  1. Kollegiia of the USSR Ministry of Defense, 1990-1991 1
  2. Senior Soviet Officers in the Unified Command of the Warsaw Treaty Organization (WTO), 1 February 1991 2
  3. Theater Commanders, Commanders-in-Chief of Troops, 1991 3
  4. Commanders of Groups Abroad, Military Districts, Fleets, and the Air Defense District, 31 December 1991 3
  5. Command Staff of the Strategic Deterrent Forces, 1 January to 31 December 1991 4
  6. Command Staff of the Ground Forces, 31 December 1991 5
  7. Command Staff of the Troops of Air Defense, 31 December 1991 6
  8. Command Staff of the Troops of the Air Forces, 31 December 1991 7
  9. Command Staff of the Navy, 31 December 1991 7
  10. Post-Coup Military Leadership, 15 December 1991 8
  11. Overall and Combat Losses, including Officers in Afghanistan, 1979-1989 9
  12. Casualties by Age in Afghanistan, 1979-1989 9
  13. Nationality of Those Killed in Afghanistan, 1979-1989 10
  14. Soviet Armed Forces by Military Theater of Operation (TVD), 1990 10
  15. Estimated Soviet Defense Expenditures 12
  16. Defense Complex in Structure of National Economy, 1990 13
  17. Projected Annual Defense Expenditures of the Soviet Union, 1991-2000 14
  18. Comparison of US Estimated Soviet Defense Expenditures and Official Soviet Defense Budgets 15
  19. Distribution of Defense Spending, USSR and US, 1990 15
  20. Armed Force Expenditures: Mandatory vs. Volunteer Army, 1991 16
  21. Soviet Defense Spending in 1989 17
  22. Dynamics of Soviet Union's Defense Expenditures 17
  23. Draft Fulfillment in the USSR, 1990 17
  24. Aircraft Production, USSR and US, 1988-1990 18
  25. Naval Ship Production, USSR and US, 1988-1990 18
  26. Missile Production, USSR and US, 1988-1990 18
  27. Ground Forces Materiel Production, USSR and US, 1988-1990 19
  28. Military Production, USSR and US, 1981-1990 19
  29. Location of USSR General Purpose Forces in Republics, September 1990 20
  30. Location of USSR Strategic Forces in Republics, September 1991 21
  31. Reduction of USSR Arms in Europe, 1989-1990 21
  32. Hypothetical USSR Tanks and Divisions by Republic After CFE Treaty, 1991 22
  33. Price Comparisons of START Inspections, US and USSR, 1991 23
  34. Apparent Location of the Former USSR's Nuclear Weapons, Late 1991 23
  35. US and USSR Nuclear Arsenals Before and After the START Treaty, 1991 24
  36. Operational Satellites in Orbit, USSR and US, 1957-July 1991 24
  37. Space Launches, USSR and US, 1957-July 1991 24
  38. Deployed US-USSR Nuclear Forces, 1991 25
  39. Technological Level in Deployed Military System, USSR and US, September 1991 26
  40. Soviet-US Strategic Offensive Forces, September 1991 27
  41. Unilateral Nuclear Disarmament 28
  42. Soviet and US ICBM Launcher and Reentry Vehicle (RV) Deployment, 1981-1991 29
  43. Soviet and US SLBM Launcher and Reentry Vehicle (RV) Deployment, 1981-1991 29
  44. Changes in Offensive Warheads, 1972-September 1991 30
  45. Deployment of Units of 106 Guards Airborne Division, Moscow, 19-21 August 1991 30
  46. Units Deployed in Moscow, 19-21 August 1991 31
  47. General Troop Movements into Moscow, 19 August 1991 32
  48. Weapons and Equipment Delivered by Major Suppliers and Received by Developing Regions (Countries): 1983-1990 33
  49. Arms Deliveries to Developing Countries: 1983-1990 34
  50. Soviet Military Budget in 1990-1991 127
  51. Employment in Military Industry and Armed Forces, Selected Countries 128
  52. Principal Debtors of the USSR 141
  53. Republic Military Inventories under the Tashkent Agreement 167
  54. CFE-Limited Aircraft Inventories as Allocated in the Tashkent Agreement 168
  55. Tank Ratios for Soviet and Republican Forces under the CFE Treaty and the Tashkent Agreement 171
  56. Ratios of Aircraft to Helicopters for Soviet and Republican Forces under the CFE Treaty and as Existing Holdings 171
  57. Particular Lessons of the Gulf War and Their Relation to Inter-Republican Warfare 177
  58. Comparison of Organic Air Defense Weapons of Soviet and Iraqi Divisions 179
  59. Russians in Other Ex-Soviet Republics, 1989 207
  60. USSR Production of Bridging and Stream-Crossing Equipment during World War II 240
  61. Short Characteristics of Soviet Bridging Equipment 241
  62. Command Organisation of the Land Forces and Air and Air Defence Aviation Forces of (State Party) Valid as of (Date) 304
  63. Overall Holdings of Battle Tanks, Armoured Combat Vehicles and Artillery Subject to Numerical Limitation of (State Party)
  64. Valid as of (Date) 304
  65. Overall Holdings of Combat Aircraft and Attack Helicopters Subject to Numerical Limitation of (State Party) Valid as of (Date) 304
  66. Information on the Location, Numbers and Types of Conventional Armaments and Equipment Provided Pursuant to Section III of the Protocol on Information Exchange of (State Party) Valid as of (Date) 305
  67. Information on the Location, Numbers and Types of Conventional Armaments and Equipment Provided Pursuant to Section III
  68. of the Protocol on Information Exchange of (State Party) Valid as of (Date) 305
  69. Information on the Location of Conventional Armaments and Equipment Provided Pursuant to Section IV of the Protocol on Information Exchange of (State Party) Valid as of (Date) 306
  70. Information on Objects of Verification and Declared Sites of (State Party) Valid as of (Date) 306
  71. Points of Entry/Exit (POE) of (State Party) Valid as of (Date) 306