Academic International Press


Documents of Soviet-American Relations

Edited by Harold J. Goldberg

SovAmDocs Contents

  • Volume 2 Propaganda, Economic Affairs, Recognition, 1917-1933
  • Volume 3 Diplomatic Relations, Economic Relations, Propaganda, International Affairs, Neutrality, 1933-1941

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Volume 1

Intervention, Famine Relief, International Affairs

Contents

Preface xvi
Introduction xix

Chapter 1 War and Armistice

  1. Wilson Asks for Declaration of War. Address of the President. 2 April 1917 1
  2. Francis on Bolshevik Prospects. Ambassador Francis to the Secretary of State. 26 October 1917 6
  3. Bolshevik Decree on Peace. 8 November (26 October) 1917 7
  4. Trotsky Announces New Government and Plans for Peace. Ambassador Francis to the Secretary of State. 22 November 1917 9
  5. Trotsky's View of US Entry into the War. Ambassador Francis to the Secretary of State. 24 November 1917 11
  6. US Embargo on Military Supplies to Russia. Letters from General Judson to Russian General Staff. 25 and 27 November 1917 13
  7. Trotsky Denies Desire for Separate Peace. Ambassador Francis to the Secretary of State. 27 November 1917 14
  8. Soviet Government Appeal to Allies on Peace Negotiations. Ambassador Francis to the Secretary of State. 29 November 1917 15
  9. Advice to Wilson on Treatment of Russia. Telegram from Colonel House to President Wilson. 30 November 1917; Letter from Ambassador Bakhmeteff to President Wilson. November/December 1917 16
  10. US Asks Trotsky to Keep German Troops on Eastern Front. General Judson to the War Department. 1 December 1917 18
  11. US and Soviet Officials Disagree on Negotiations. Exchange of Notes between Lieutenant-Colonel Kerth and Trotsky. 27 November and 1 December 1917 18
  12. Trotsky and US Official Exchange Conciliatory Views. Ambassador Francis to the Secretary of State. 2 December 1917 19
  13. US Declares War on Austria-Hungary. Address of the President. 4 December 1917 21 Trotsky's Note to the Embassies of the Allied Governments. Ambassador Francis to the Secretary of State. 6 December 1917 26
  14. Lansing Favors Overthrow of Bolsheviks. The Secretary of State to President Wilson. 10 December 1917 27
  15. Trotsky Again Challenges Allies to Announce War Aims. Ambassador Francis to the Secretary of State. 31 December 1917 29
  16. Francis Analyzes Trotsky's Call for Allied War Aims. Ambassador Francis to the Secretary of State. 1 January 1918 32
  17. Francis on Soviet-German Ties. Ambassador Francis to the Secretary Robins Attempts to Keep Russia in the War. Note from Robins to Trotsky. Note from Ambassador Francis to Robins. 2 January 1918 34
  18. Wilson's Fourteen Points Speech. Address of the President. 8 January 1918 35
  19. Francis Addresses the Russian People. Ambassador Francis to the Secretary of State. 13 January 1918 39
  20. Francis on Lenin-Trotsky Rift over Peace. Ambassador Francis to the Secretary of State. 28 January 1918 40
  21. Trotsky Asks Robins about Prospects for US Aid. Note from Trotsky to Robins. 5 March 1918 41
  22. Wilson Exchanges Notes with Congress of Soviets. 11 and 15 March 1918 42
  23. US Refuses to Join Allied Protest. Department of State to the French Ambassador. 12 March 1918 43
  24. Interview with Francis on Brest-Litovsk and Soviet Response. Ambassador Francis to the Secretary of State. 16 and 17 March 1918 44
  25. Conflicting Reports on Soviet Views. Ambassador Francis to the Secretary of State. 20 March 1918 46
  26. Robins Favors American Economic Aid for Russia. Ambassador Francis to the Secretary of State. 22 March 1918 47
  27. Lansing Expresses Cautious Policy. The Secretary of State to Ambassador Francis. 5 April 1918 48
  28. President Wilson's Speech. Address of the President. 6 April 1918 49
  29. Francis Reports on Bolshevik Views. Ambassador Francis to the Secretary of State. 24 April 1918 52
  30. US Denies Talks with Soviet Government. The Secretary of State to Ambassador Francis. 30 April 1918 52
  31. Policy Statement of Secretary of State. The Secretary of State to Ambassador Francis. 8 May 1918 53
  32. Francis Addresses Russian People. Ambassador Francis to the Secretary of State. 4 July 1918 54
  33. Wilson Speech at Mount Vernon. Address of the President. 4 July 1918 56
  34. House on Fourteen Points and Russia. Colonel House to the Secretary of State. 29 October 1918 59
  35. Comintern View of US Participation in the War. Newspaper Article. December 1923 60

Chapter 2 Intervention

  1. US Opposes Intervention. Department of State Note to American Diplomats. 20 January 1918 68
  2. US Reluctance to Intervene. Department of State Memorandum. 8 February 1918 69
  3. US to Japan on Intervention. Department of State Note to American Diplomats. 5 March 1918 70
  4. Chicherin Protests Intervention. Note to Raymond Robins. 7 April 1918 71
  5. Francis Assesses Soviet Reaction. Press Release. 10 April 1918 72
  6. Soviet Protest against Allied Policies. Chicherin Note to Robins. 26 April 1918 73
  7. Francis Argues for Intervention. Ambassador Francis to the Secretary of State. 2 May 1918 74
  8. Francis Summarizes American Policy. Press Release. 25 May 1918 76
  9. Francis Explains American Policy to Russian People. Press Release. 31 May 1918 78
  10. US Considers Intervention in North Russia. Memorandum of Lansing. 3 June 1918 79
  11. Chicherin's Statement on Czech Forces. Note to Western Diplomats. 12 June 1918 79
  12. Francis States Czechs Mistreated. Ambassador Francis to the Secretary of State. 13 June 1918 81
  13. Chicherin Protests against Allied Warships. Note to the Western Diplomats. 16 June 1918 82
  14. Supreme War Council Urges US to Join Intervention. Telegram to the Secretary of State. 2 July 1918 83
  15. American Views on Intervention and Czech Forces. Memorandum by Secretary of State. Instructions to American Ambassador in Japan. 6 July 1918 87
  16. Allies Land at Vladivostok. Proclamation by Allied Military Commanders. 6 July 1918 88
  17. Chicherin and Francis Dispute Transfer of Allied Diplomats. Exchange of Notes. 11 July 1918 90
  18. Chicherin Protests Intervention in Murmansk. Note to US Representative. 12 July 1918 91
  19. Lansing Explains US Position on Intervention. Aide-Memoire. 17 July 1918 91
  20. Official American Statement on Intervention. Press Release. 5 August 1918 94
  21. Debate over Movement of Diplomatic Corps. Exchange of Notes between Francis and Chicherin. 22 July-15 August 1918 96
  22. Chicherin and Poole Discuss Worsening Relations. Exchange of Notes. 24 July-5 August 1918 103
  23. US Desires Limited Intervention. Memorandum of Lansing. 20 August 1918 108
  24. Wilson Reaffirms Non-Political Nature of American Intervention. Note from Wilson to Lansing. 23 August 1918 109
  25. Chicherin Denies Mistreatment of Czech Forces. Note to US Government. 27 August 1918 110
  26. Report on Chicherin's View of US. Poole to the Secretary of State. <5 September 1918 111
  27. Chicherin's Letter to Wilson. 24 October 1918 112
  28. US Insists on Non-Recognition. Note from Lansing to the French Ambassador. 5 November 1918 118
  29. Chicherin Desires Contacts with US. Telegram to the Secretary of State. 5 November 1918 119
  30. Chicherin Offers to Negotiate. Note to US Government. 8 November 1918 119
  31. Lansing Rejects Negotiations. Telegram to the Minister in Norway. 9 November 1918 120 General Graves Reports on the Situation in Siberia. 13 December 1918 122
  32. Graves's Second Report. 29 December 1918 124
  33. Litvinov's Letter to Wilson. 24 December 1918 126
  34. Soviet Appeal for Peace. Letter from Litvinov and Vorovsky to Dr. Meyer. 10 January 1919 128
  35. Chicherin's Note to Department of State. 12 January 1919 130
  36. Prinkipo Proposal. 22 January 1919 132
  37. Soviet Response to Prinkipo Proposal. 4 February 1919 134
  38. American Opposition to Prinkipo Proposal. Poole to the Department of State. 4 February 1919 136
  39. Bullitt Mission to Russia. Bullitt Report and Draft Treaty. March 1919 137
  40. General Graves Reports on Intervention. 5 March 1919 149
  41. American Intervention to Protect Railways. Instructions for General Graves. 1 April 1919. Proclamation by General Graves. 21 April 1919 150
  42. Izvestiia Editorial on Intervention. 5 April 1919 152
  43. Bullitt Resigns in Protest. Letter from Bullitt to Wilson. 17 May 1919 153 Wilson Explains Intervention to Senate. Message from the President. 22 July 1919 158
  44. Litvinov Supports Bullitt. Press Release. 13 September 1919 160
  45. Lenin Comments on Bullitt Peace Plan. Letter from Lenin to American Newspaper. 5 October 1919 162 Litvinov Appeals for Talks. Resolution of the Congress of Soviets. 5 December 1919 165
  46. Chicherin Reports on Foreign Policy. Report to Seventh All-Russian Congress of Soviets. December 1919 166
  47. US Informs Japan of End of Intervention. Department of State Memorandum. 9 January 1920 169
  48. Soviet Peaceful Intentions Declared. Press Release. 16 January 1920 171
  49. US Accepts Continued Japanese Presence in Siberia. Department of State Memorandum. 30 January 1920 172
  50. Martens Statement on Soviet Peace Attempts. Report to Senate Subcommittee on Foreign Relations. January 1920 173
  51. Chicherin Offers to Negotiate with US. Note to Department of State. 24 February 1920 178
  52. Soviet Peace Terms Listed. Radio Dispatch to Allied Governments. March 1920 179
  53. Review of General Graves's Book on Intervention. Newspaper Article. August and September 1932 180
  54. Stalin Period Review of US Policy. Newspaper Article. 22 November 1932 188

Chapter 3 Famine and Relief

  1. Nansen Proposal on Famine Relief. Letter to Wilson. 3 April 1919 190
  2. Allied Reply. Letter to Nansen. 17 April 1919 191
  3. Soviet Response to Nansen's Offer of Aid. Letter from Chicherin to Nansen. 7 May 1919 192
  4. Wilson Transfers Funds for Relief. Executive Order. 24 June 1919 195
  5. Relief Provided for White Forces. Treaty between ARA and Kolchak's Representative. 16 July 1919 196
  6. Gorky Appeals to American People for Aid. 13 July 1919; Hoover's Response. 23 July 1919; Note from Gorky. 31 July 1919 198
  7. Chicherin Expresses Gratitude for Aid. Telegram from Chicherin to the Secretary of State. 2 August 1921 201
  8. Hoover Affirms Non-Political Nature of Relief. Note to Walter Lymon Brown. 9 August 1921 203 Litvinov Interviewed in Latvia. 12 August 1921 205
  9. Riga Agreement on Aid for Russia. Treaty. 20 August 1921 208
  10. Haskell Appointed Chief of Operations in Russia. Note from Walter Lymon Brown to Litvinov. 21 August 1921 212
  11. Brown Describes Negotiations. Letter to Hoover. 27 August 1921 213
  12. Informal Notes on Riga Agreement Negotiations. 29 August 1921 215
  13. Secretary of State Informs Diplomats of Rules. Note to American Diplomats. 14 September 1921 217
  14. Lenin Appeals to Workers for Aid. Letter to Workers of the World. September 1921 218
  15. Soviet Government Orders Cooperation. Decree. 21 September 1921 219
  16. Agreement on Warehouses. ARA and Soviet Government Treaty. 19 October 1921 220
  17. Comintern Appeals for Famine Relief. Newspaper Articles. 1 October 1921 and 13 December 1921 222
  18. Haskell Reports to Hoover on Situation in Russia. 5 November 1921 224
  19. Soviet Article Encourages Support for ARA Work. 30 November 1921 226
  20. Hoover Calls for Increased Soviet Effort. Note to Walter Lymon Brown. 16 December 1921 229
  21. Congress Approves Aid. 22 December 1921 230
  22. Harding Implements Congressional Appropriation. Executive Order. 24 December 1921 230
  23. ARA-Soviet Agreement on Additional Aid. Treaty Supplement. 30 December 1921 231
  24. Soviet Government Establishes Account to Pay for Relief. Treaty. 30 December 1921 232
  25. Soviet Appeal for Economic Aid. Newspaper Article. 4 January 1922 234
  26. US Government Allows Soviet Payments for Relief. Note from the Secretary of State to the Secretary of the Treasury. 10 January 1922 235
  27. Congress Approves Medical Aid. Act of Congress and Executive Order. 20 January and 24 January 1922 236
  28. Soviet Government Expresses Appreciation. Letter from Kamenev to ARA. 20 May 1922 237
  29. Jewish Charity Agreement. 14 August 1922 238
  30. Haskell Asks Kamenev for Evidence of Russia's Continued Need. Letter from ARA to Soviet Government. 9 October 1922 240
  31. Kamenev's Response. Letter from Soviet Government to ARA. 13 October 1922 242
  32. Quinn Asks Kamenev for Assistance. Letter from ARA to Soviet Government. 26 December 1922 243
  33. Haskell Reports on Conversation with Kalinin and Relations with Russia. Confidential Letter. 6 March 1923 244
  34. Soviet Food Supply Found Adequate. Letter from ARA to Soviet Government. 4 June 1923 247
  35. Kamenev Thanks ARA. Letter. 8 June 1923 248
  36. Letters Explaining Liquidation Agreement. June 1923 249
  37. Liquidation Agreement. Treaty. 15 June 1923 251
  38. Soviet Government Appreciation. Letter. 10 July 1923 252
  39. Farewell Banquet for ARA. Newspaper Articles. 20 July 1923 254

Chapter 4 World Affairs

  1. Chicherin Protests Soviet Exclusion from Aland Island Decision. Note to Entente Governments. 2 October 1919 259
  2. Izvestiia Assesses World Affairs in 1920. 3 April 1920 260
  3. Chicherin Protests Soviet Exclusion from Washington Conference. Note to the US. 19 July 1921 262
  4. Comintern Analysis of Washington Conference. Theses Adopted by ECCI. 15 August 1921 264
  5. Chicherin Protests Washington Conference. Note to the US Government. 2 November 1921 268
  6. Soviet Article Assesses US Force. 6 December 1921 269
  7. Chicherin on Chinese Eastern Railway. Note to the US. 8 December 1921 271
  8. US Urges Japan to Leave Siberia. Report of the American Delegation to the President. 9 February 1922 272
  9. Comintern View of Washington Conference. Newspaper Article. 17 February 1922 275
  10. Provisional Government Ambassador Objects to Genoa Conference Plans. Summary of Bakhmeteff's Remarks. 11 January 1922 277
  11. US Turns Down Genoa Invitation. Note from the Secretary of State to the Government of Italy. 8 March 1922 278
  12. Soviet View of Genoa Conference. Newspaper Article. 15 March 1922 280
  13. Trotsky on Genoa Conference. Newspaper Article. 21 March 1922 284
  14. US Protects Interests at Genoa. The Secretary of State to the US Ambassador in Italy. 11 May 1922 285
  15. Soviet Document Presented at Genoa Conference. 11 May 1922 286
  16. US Refuses to Attend Hague Conference. The Secretary of State to the Government of Italy. 15 May 1922 294
  17. Lenin on Capitalist Relations. Newspaper Article. 1 December 1922 296
  18. Radek Reports on Washington Conference. Report to Comintern. 15 June 1923 297
  19. Soviet Protest of American Warship Intrusions. Note from Litvinov to the Secretary of State and US Action. 31 January and 6 February 1924 300
  20. Soviet Analysis of Dawes Plan. Newspaper Article. 14 August 1924 301
  21. Soviet Defense of Diplomatic Relations with China. Newspaper Article. September 1924 305
  22. Soviet Commentary on Locarno Treaty. Newspaper Article. 24 November 1925 307
  23. Comintern Analysis of American Imperialism. Newspaper Article. 10 December 1925 313
  24. Litvinov on Central America. Press Conference and Newspaper Articles. 18 January 1927 315
  25. Comintern Rejects US Intervention in Nicaragua. Newspaper Article. 29 January 1927 317
  26. Varga Critiques American Economic Interests. Newspaper Article. 30 May 1927 318
  27. Critique of the Kellogg Pact. Newspaper Article. 26 July 1928 320
  28. Chicherin Interview on Kellogg Pact. Statement to Press. 5 August 1928 322
  29. Soviet Editorials on Kellogg Pact Negotiations. 11 and 12 August 1928 325
  30. Kellogg-Briand Pact. Treaty. 27 August 1928 330
  31. Invitation to Soviet Union to Join Kellogg Pact. French Government to Soviet Government. 27 August 1928 333
  32. Soviet Adhesion to Kellogg Pact. Soviet Government to the French Government. 31 August 1928 335
  33. US Communist Party Discusses American Foreign Policy. Newspaper Article. October 1928 340
  34. Molotov Assesses Relations with the US. Speech to VI All-Union Congress of Soviets. March 1931 351
  35. Comintern View of Anti-Soviet American Policy. Newspaper US Communist Party Assesses American Foreign Policy. Newspaper Article. December 1931 352
  36. Comintern Analyzes Prospects for War. Newspaper Article. 7 April 1932 360
  37. Comintern Attack on President Hoover. Newspaper Article. 14 April 1932 361
  38. Soviet View of Hoover Disarmament Plan. Newspaper Article. 2 July 1932 363
  39. Roosevelt's Message to Kalinin and Soviet Response. 17 and 19 May 1933 366
  40. Soviet Summary of US-Soviet Relations between the Wars. Brezhnev Era Official View. 1973 368
  • Chronological List of Documents 373
  • Selected Bibliography 381
  • Notes 383
  • Indexes 410

 

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