Academic International Press


Documents of Soviet-American Relations

Edited by Harold J. Goldberg

SovAmDocs Contents

  • Volume 1 Intervention, Famine Relief, International Affairs, 1917-1933
  • Volume 3 Diplomatic Relations, Economic Relations, Propaganda, International Affairs, Neutrality, 1993-1941

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Volume 2

Propaganda, Economic Affairs, Recognition, 1917-1919

Contents

Preface xvi
Introduction xix

 

Chapter 1 Propaganda

  1. From The New York State Legislative Committee Report. Decree on Aid to Workers' Movements. December 1917 1
  2. Sisson Documents. Ambassador Francis to The Secretary of State. 9-13 February 1918 2
  3. From The New York State Legislative Committee Report. Lenin on Brest-Litovsk. March 1918 9
  4. Lenin's Message to American Workers. Open Letter. 20 August 1918 10
  5. From The New York State Legislative Committee Report. Newspaper Articles on Red Terror. August/September 1918 18
  6. Protest Against Red Terror. Consul Poole to Commissar for Foreign Affairs. 4 September 1918 19
  7. Red Cross Protests Against Red Terror. Major Wardwell to Commissar for Foreign Affairs. 8 September 1918 20
  8. Lansing Expresses Opposition to Red Terror. The Secretary of State to American Diplomats. 20 September 1918 21
  9. Soviet Government Explains Red Terror. Chicherin to Major Wardwell. 11 September 1918 22
  10. Plan to Deport Aliens with Extremist Views. Act of Congress. 16 October 1918 24
  11. From The New York State Legislative Committee Report. Soviet Propaganda Among Allied Soldiers. Fall 1918 25
  12. From The New York State Legislative Committee Report. Soviet Appeal to American Soldiers. Fall 1918 28
  13. From The New York State Legislative Committee Report. Speech on the Spread of Revolution. December 1918 29
  14. From The New York State Legislative Committee Report. Lenin's Open Letter to Workers of the World. 21 January 1919 32
  15. From The New York State Legislative Committee Report. Soviet Response on Prinkipo Peace Plan. February 1919 36
  16. Poole Objects to Prinkipo Proposal. Telegram to the Department of State. 11 February 1919 38
  17. US Senate Examines Bolshevik Propaganda. Resolution. 4 February 1919 39
  18. Department of Justice Reports on Subversive Activities. The Attorney General to the US Senate. 11 February 1919 41
  19. Additional Sisson Documents. US Senate Hearings. 11 February-10 March 1919 42
  20. US Senate on Bolshevik Propaganda. Hearings. 11 February-10 March 1919 45
  21. Martens Explains Russian Situation. Speech. 27 March 1919 73
  22. From The New York State Legislative Committee Report. Speech by Martens. 1 May 1919 76
  23. From The New York State Legislative Committee Report. Soviet Instructions on Subversive Activities. Summer 1919 76
  24. Lansing Sends Soviet Documents to US Senate. The Secretary of State to Henry Cabot Lodge. 27 October 1919 77
  25. From The New York State Legislative Committee Report. American Communist Support for Soviet Russia. 7 November 1919 90
  26. From The New York State Legislative Committee Report. Newspaper Article Opposes Intervention. November 1919 91
  27. 0Martens Responds to Lusk Committee. Statement of Russian Soviet Government Bureau. 15 November 1919 92
  28. Martens Welcomes Senate Investigation. Statement of Russian Soviet Government Bureau. 10 January 1920 93
  29. Martens Testifies Before US Senate. Statement of Russian Soviet Government Bureau. 12 January 1920 94
  30. From The New York State Legislative Committee Report. Comintern Orders American Communist Unity. 12 January 1920 98
  31. Report on the Communist International. Memorandum of Department of State. 20 March 1920 102
  32. Comintern Starts Appeals for Sacco and Vanzetti. Newspaper Article. 29 November 1921 103
  33. Continuing Protest for Sacco and Vanzetti. Newspaper Article. 6 January 1922 104
  34. Persecution of Russian Church Officials. President Harding to the Secretary of State. 20 May 1922 105
  35. The Comintern on the Negro Question. Theses of the Fourth Congress of the Communist International. November 1922 106
  36. Madame Kalinin Denied Entry Into US. Exchange of Letters by Secretary of State and President Harding. 28 March 1923; 9 April 1923 108
  37. Chicherin Denies Authenticity of Propaganda Documents. Newspaper Article. 22 December 1923 111
  38. Izvestiia Denies Propaganda Charges. Newspaper Article. 22 December 1923 111
  39. American CP Denies Subversion Charge. Newspaper Article. 17 January 1924 114
  40. Lynching in the US. Newspaper Article. 2 October 1924 115
  41. Comintern Instructions to American Communists. Newspaper Article. 5 February 1925 118
  42. Comintern on the American Question. Resolution. 4 June 1925 119
  43. Comintern Instructions to American CP. Resolution of Executive Committee. 17 February-15 March 1926 125
  44. Protests for Sacco and Vanzetti. Newspaper Article. 17 June 1926 129
  45. Further Protest for Sacco and Vanzetti. Appeal by Red International of Labor Unions. 15 July 1926 130
  46. American Communists Support Defeat of Zinoviev Opposition. Newspaper Article. 19 August 1926 131
  47. Sacco and Vanzetti's New Trial. Newspaper Article. 23 September 1926 132
  48. Kollantai Denied Entry Into US. Exchange of Letters; Press Release. 20 October 1926; 2 November 1926; 4 November 1926 133
  49. Comintern Statement on Sacco and Vanzetti. Manifesto of the Executive Committee. 22 November 1926 134
  50. Comintern Urges Sacco and Vanzetti Protests. Newspaper Article. 14 April 1927 135
  51. Another Sacco and Vanzetti Appeal. Newspaper Article. 5 May 1927 136
  52. Pravda on Sacco and Vanzetti. Newspaper Article. 24 August 1927 137
  53. Comintern Comments on Execution of Sacco and Vanzetti. Newspaper Article. 25 August 1927 138
  54. Comintern Attacks Bourgeois Justice. Newspaper Article. 27 August 1927 141
  55. American Communists on Sacco and Vanzetti. Newspaper Article. 15 October 1927 141
  56. Comintern on the Negro Question. Resolution of the Executive Committee. 26 October 1928 147
  57. Comintern Instructions to American CP. Newspaper Article. 1 March 1929 157
  58. Further Instructions to American CP. Newspaper Article. 7 June 1929 161
  59. American Communists Accept Soviet View of US. Newspaper Article. 23 December 1929 163
  60. Pravda's View of the Tasks of American CP. Newspaper Article. 31 December 1929 164
  61. Comintern on the Scottsboro Boys. Newspaper Article. 30 April 1931 166
  62. American Workers Praise Soviet System. Newspaper Article. 5 May 1931 167
  63. Negro Rights and Soviet System Paralleled. Newspaper Article. 10 March 1932 169
  64. Comintern Appeals for Scottsboro Boys Again. Newspaper Article. 21 April 1932 170
  65. Another Comintern Comment on Scottsboro Boys. Newspaper Article. 9 June 1932 171
  66. Appeal from a Scottsboro Boy Mother. Newspaper Article. 11 August 1932 171

Chapter 2 Economic Relations

  1. US Promises Loans for Provisional Government. The Secretary of State to Ambassador Francis. 13 April 1917 173
  2. Repudiation of Debts and Loans. Decree of Soviet Government. 21 January/3 February 1918 174
  3. Soviet View of Possible Economic Agreements with US. Newspaper Article. 13 March 1918 175
  4. Trotsky Seeks American Economic Aid. Note to American Military Mission. 21 March 1918 177
  5. Francis Supports Railway Workers for Russia. Ambassador Francis to the Secretary of State. 5 April 1918 178
  6. Lenin's Plan for Russian-American Trade. Commission on Foreign Trade to US Government. 12 May 1918 179
  7. Soviet Government Offers Trade Relations. Consul Poole to Ambassador Francis; Attaché Lehrs to Poole. 5 June 1918 186
  8. Robins Supports US Trade Relations with Russia. Robins to the Secretary of State. 1 July 1918 189
  9. US to Operate the Trans-Siberian Railway. The Secretary of State to Allied Governments. 13 September 1918 194
  10. US Clarifies Trade Policy; Martens Replies. The Department of State to Senator Wadsworth; Martens to Wadsworth. 1 November 1919; 5 November 1919 196
  11. Lansing Suggests Plan for Economic Recovery of Russia. The Secretary of State to President Wilson. 3 December 1919 201
  12. Senate Documents on Russian Economy. Memorandum of Division of Russian Affairs. 1 December 1919-5 June 1920 206
  13. Allied Statement on Trade with Russia. Note of Supreme Council. 16 January 1920 208
  14. Litvinov Awaits American Initiative. Interview. 27 May 1920 210
  15. US Allows Trade But Reiterates Non-Recognition. Department of State to Allied Governments. 24 June 1920 211
  16. Announcement of Trade Resumption. Department of State to American Diplomats. 7 July 1920 213
  17. Martens Responds to American Trade Possibility. Newspaper Article. 8 July 1920 214
  18. US Explains Trade Changes. The Secretary of State to American Diplomats. 27 July 1920 215
  19. Litvinov Supports Harding. Interview. 25 August 1920 216
  20. Concession Agreement with Soviet Government. Statement by Chicherin and Russian Soviet Government Bureau. 26 October 1920 217
  21. Lenin on Concessions Policy. Speech. 8 December 1920 219
  22. US Eases Gold Restrictions. Press Release by Treasury Department. 20 December 1920 220
  23. Chicherin Protests Planned Deportation of Martens. Cable from Chicherin to Martens. 27 December 1920 220
  24. Martens Assures Vanderlip on Concession. Letter from Martens to Washington B. Vanderlip. 8 January 1921 221
  25. Chicherin Welcomes Harding's Election. Interview. 8 February 1921 223
  26. Martens Reports on Trade Possibilities. Newspaper article. 2 March 1921 224
  27. Litvinov Proposes Trade Negotiations. Note from Soviet Government to American Government. 20 March 1921 225
  28. Hughes Rejects Litvinov's Proposal. Telegram from the Secretary of State for Litvinov. 25 March 1921 226
  29. Krasin Hopeful of Trade Ties with US. Newspaper Article. 1 April 1921 227
  30. Hughes to Gompers on American Trade Policy. Letter from the Secretary of State to Samuel Gompers. 5 April 1921 229
  31. US Government Views on Soviet Gold. Note from Department of State to Treasury Department. 9 April 1921 232
  32. Litvinov Responds to Hughes on Trade. Newspaper Article. 13 April 1921 234
  33. Soviet Statement on Peace and Economic Relations. Note from Chicherin to Allied Governments. 28 October 1921 235
  34. Hoover Rejects Plan for German-American Trade with Russia. Herbert Hoover to the Secretary of State. 6 December 1921 237
  35. Chicherin Puzzled by American Policy. Report to Central Executive Committee. 28 January 1922 239
  36. Krasin Pushes for American Trade. Ambassador in Italy to the Secretary of State. 22 May 1922 240
  37. Radek Praises American Union for Assistance. Newspaper Article. 28 June 1922 241
  38. Soviet Response to American Proposal for Trade Delegation Visit. Chicherin to US Government. 28 August 1922; 16 September 1922 242
  39. Litvinov Explains Reasons for Compromise. Washington B. Vanderlip Report to American Diplomats. 30 August 1922 245
  40. Chicherin Proposes Trade Bureaus. Interview. 30 December 1922 246
  41. Chicherin Demands Equality in Trade Missions. Memorandum on Conversation. 2 February 1923 246
  42. US Refuses to Assist Sinclair Oil Lease on Sakhalin. The Secretary of State to Sinclair Oil Company. 17 March 1923 249
  43. Soviet Response to Hughes on Trade. Newspaper Article. 28 March 1923 251
  44. Steklov Welcomes Increased American Interest. Newspaper Article. 17 July 1923 252
  45. Trotsky Comments on Trade with US. Interview. 30 September 1923 254
  46. Soviet Threat to Reduce Trade in US. Newspaper Article. 30 September 1924 257
  47. Department of State Rejects Aid for Sinclair Oil. Memorandum of the Secretary of State. 12 March 1925 258
  48. US Allows Visas for Russians Conducting Business. The Secretary of State to American Diplomats. 19 May 1925 259
  49. Manganese Lease for Harriman. Newspaper Article. 13 and 20 June 1925 260
  50. Stalin Reports on US Financial Power. Report to the Fourteenth Party Congress. 18 December 1925 261
  51. Chicherin Speaks on Trade with US. Interview. December 1925 263
  52. US Opposes Loan Plan for Russia. The Secretary of State to Harriman's Law Firm. 2 April 1926 264
  53. US Clarifies Trade Position. Note of the Department of State. 28 November 1927 265
  54. Coolidge on Trade with Russia. Press Conference. 24 February 1928 266
  55. US Restates Position on Soviet Gold. The Treasury Department to the Department of State. The Secretary of State to the French Ambassador; Press Release. 14 February 1928; 10 March 1928; 6 March 1928 266
  56. Litvinov to Central Executive Committee on Trade with US. Report. 11 December 1928 269
  57. Stalin on Relations with US. Interview. 28 January 1929 270
  58. Stalin on the Depression. Report to the Sixteenth Party Congress. 27 June 1930 272
  59. Economic and Diplomatic Relations Connected. Newspaper Article. 21 August 1930 273
  60. Stalin on US Economic Strength. Interview. 13 December 1931 277
  61. Stalin on Trade with US. Interview. 3 May 1932 278
  62. Soviet Economic Pressure. Newspaper Article. 14 July 1932 279
  63. Soviet Response on Trade Discrimination. Decrees. 20 October 1930; 12 March 1931 281
  64. Soviet Views of US at World Economic Conference. Newspaper Articles. 18, 20, 21 June 1933 283
  65. Stalin Favors Increased Trade with US. Interview. 25 December 1933 288

Chapter 3 Diplomatic Relations

  1. Russian Diplomats Reject Soviet Government. Telegram to the Secretary of State. 12 November 1917 289
  2. US Noncommittal on Russian Policy. The Secretary of State to Ambassador Francis. 24 November 1917 289
  3. Trotsky Expresses Lack of Interest in Western Views. Ambassador Francis to the Secretary of State. 1 December 1917 290
  4. US Denies Hostility to Soviet Russia. The Secretary of State for Colonel House. 1 December 1917 291
  5. Soviet Government Claims Indifference to Recognition. Ambassador Francis to the Secretary of State. 15 December 1917 291
  6. Lansing Orders No Contact with Soviet Diplomats. The Secretary of State to American Diplomats. 15 December 1917 293
  7. President Opposes Diplomatic Contact. The Secretary of State to American Minister in China. 18 December 1917 293
  8. US Refuses to Recognize Any Russian Government. Statement by the Secretary of State. 10 January 1918 294
  9. US Supports Democracy in Russia. The Secretary of State to Ambassador Francis. 15 January 1918 295
  10. US Affirms Friendship for Russian People. Department of State to American Diplomats. 12 March 1918 296
  11. Trotsky Interested in Allied Aid. Ambassador Francis to the Secretary of State. 23 March 1918 296
  12. Lansing Supports Actions of Francis. The Secretary of State to Ambassador Francis. 23 March 1918 297
  13. Continued Privileges for Provisional Government. The Secretary of State to American Ambassador in Britain. 3 April 1918 298
  14. Warning to US Against Recognition. US Committee on Public Information for Colonel House. 29 April 1918 298
  15. Francis Criticizes Robins. Ambassador Francis to the Secretary of State. 16 May 1918 299
  16. Francis Clarifies American Policy. Ambassador Francis to the Secretary of State. 31 May 1918 301
  17. US Strongly Denies Recognition. Department of State to American Litvinov Appointed Representative to US. Ambassador Francis to the Lansing Hopes for New Government in Russia. The Secretary of State to Ambassador Francis. 12 June 1918 303
  18. US Rejects Recognition. The Secretary of State to Ambassador Francis. 27 September 1918 304
  19. US Refuses to Recognize Any Government in Russia. The Secretary of State to Ambassador Bakhmeteff. 17 October 1918 304
  20. Lansing Prohibits Red Cross-Bolshevik Contact. Exchange Between American Chargé in Sweden and the Secretary of State. 29 and 31 October 1918 305
  21. US Again Rejects Recognition of Any Government in Russia. The Secretary of State to the French Ambassador. 5 November 1918 306
  22. Martens Appointed Soviet Representative in US. Note, Credentials, Memorandum. 2 January and 18 March 1919 307
  23. Martens Demands Russian Embassy in Washington. Letter to Ambassador Bakhmeteff. 10 April 1919 313
  24. Office of Martens Raided. Martens to the Secretary of State. 12 June 1919 314
  25. Accusatory Notes Regarding Treatment of Martens. Exchange Between Wilson Condemns Bolsheviks. Speeches. 6 September 1919 316
  26. Protest Over Treatment of Russian Citizens in US. Martens to the Secretary of State. 15 November 1919 318
  27. US Prepares to Deport Anarchists to Soviet Russia. The Secretary of State to American Commissioner at Riga. 11 December 1919 320
  28. Lansing Clarifies Views on Recognition. The Secretary of State to American Diplomats. 8 January 1920 321
  29. Soviet Government Proposes Talks with US. Chicherin to the Secretary of State. 25 February 1920 322
  30. Soviet Request for Diplomatic Relations. Martens to the Secretary of State. 31 March 1920 323
  31. Martens Appeals to Public Opinion. Press Release. 31 March 1920 325
  32. Lusk Committee Opposes Recognition. Conclusion of Report. 24 April 1920 326
  33. US Opposes Either Partition or Recognition. The Secretary of State to American Diplomats. 2 August 1920 330
  34. US-Soviet Accusations on Repatriation. Chicherin and Colby to Nansen. 6 and 21 August 1920 332
  35. Colby Explains American Policy. The Secretary of State to the Italian Ambassador. 10 August 1920 334
  36. Martens Responds to Colby Note. Newspaper Article. 21 August 1920 338
  37. Soviet Response to the Colby Note. Chicherin to the Italian Ambassador. 4 October 1920 341
  38. Chicherin Suggests Direct Talks on Repatriation. Exchange of notes by Nansen and Chicherin. 7 and 9 April 1921 344
  39. Krasin Proposes Relations with US. Consul General in London to the Secretary of State. 20 January 1922 345
  40. Bakhmeteff Steps Down as Ambassador in Washington. Exchange of Letters. 28 and 29 April 1922 346
  41. US Recognizes Baltic States. Exchange of Letters. 6 April and 25 July 1922 348
  42. US on Contact with Soviet Delegates at Lausanne. The Secretary of State to the American Mission. 9 December 1922 351
  43. Hughes Rejects Recognition. Press Release. 21 March 1923 351
  44. Izvestiia Editorial on Recognition. Newspaper Article. 27 March 1923 354
  45. Gompers Opposes Recognition. Exchange of Letters by Gompers and the Secretary of State. 9 and 19 July 1923 357
  46. Harding on Recognition. Speech. 31 July 1923 361
  47. Coolidge on Recognition. Press Conferences. 31 August 1923-31 December 1926 363
  48. Coolidge Hopes for Improved Relations. Speech. 6 December 1923 365
  49. Izvestiia on Coolidge's Speech. Newspaper Article. 9 December 1923 366
  50. Kamenev Favors Improved Relations. Newspaper Article. 11 December 1923 368
  51. Hughes Rejects Chicherin Offer of Relations. Exchange of Letters and Press Release. 16, 18, and 19 December 1923 368
  52. Senate Discusses Investigation of Soviet Policies. Debate of Borah's Resolution. 20 December 1923 372
  53. Link Between Recognition and Trade. Newspaper Article. 29 December 1923 374
  54. Chicherin Disputes Claims of Hughes. Newspaper Article. 28 September 1924 376
  55. Chicherin Welcomes Retirement of Hughes. Newspaper Article. 21 January 1925 378
  56. Zinoviev on Prospect for Recognition. Speech. 26 January 1925 380
  57. Steklov on Recognition. Newspaper Article. 24 February 1925 381
  58. American CP on Recognition. Newspaper Article. 19 March 1925 382
  59. Senate Asked to Consider Recognition. Borah's Resolution. 10 December 1925 384
  60. Chicherin Knows Recognition Unlikely. American Minister in Riga to Department of State. 8 January 1926 385
  61. Trotsky on Recognition. Newspaper Article. February 1926 385
  62. Sherwood Eddy Commission Report on Soviet Russia. Newspaper Article. November 1926 387
  63. American Trade Union Delegation on Recognition. Report. 1927 389
  64. Kellogg Explains American Policy. The Secretary of State to Senator Butler. 23 February 1928 397
  65. Senate Conditions on Treaty. Resolution. 22 March 1928 400
  66. Press Speculation on Recognition. Newspaper Article. 14 September 1928 400
  67. Gunther Relays Litvinov's Views. US Embassy in Berlin to the Secretary of State. 25 September 1928 401
  68. Izvestiia Comments on Recognition. Newspaper Article. 11 December 1928 403
  69. Borah Supports Recognition. Resolution. 18 April 1929 404
  70. Recognition Tied to Religious Situation. Resolution. 28 February 1930 404
  71. Stimson Explains American Policy. The Secretary of State to Senator Borah. 8 September 1932 406
  72. Soviet Press Praises Borah. Newspaper Article. 11 June 1933 408
  73. Hull on Negotiations for Recognition. Letter to the President. 21 September 1933 408
  74. Division of Eastern European Affairs on Recognition. Letter to the Department of State. 25 September 1933 410
  75. Bullitt on Recognition. Memorandum. 4 October 1933 411
  76. US Initiates Recognition. Exchange of Letters Between Roosevelt and Kalinin. 10 and 17 October 1933 412
  77. Soviet Editorials on Roosevelt's Note to Kalinin. Newspaper Articles. 21 October 1933 413
  78. Soviet Press on Recognition History. Newspaper Articles. 4 and 5 November 1933 417
  79. Diplomatic Relations Established. Exchange of Letters Between Roosevelt and Litvinov. 16 November 1933 421
  80. Kalinin's Address to American People. Newspaper Article. 21 November 1933 428
  81. Assistant Secretary of State Explains Recognition. Radio Speech. 22 November 1933 429
  82. Bullitt and Kalinin Exchange Greetings. Presentation of Credentials. 13 December 1933 434
  83. Harpo Marx Visits Russia. Newspaper Article. 20 December 1933 435
  • Chronological List of Documents 437
  • Selected Bibliography 446
  • Notes 450
  • Indexes 480
  • Biography 500

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