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Russia & Eurasia Facts & Figures Annual (REFFA)

(Formerly USSR Facts Figures Annual (UFFA))

REFFA/UFFA Contents

 

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UFFA Volume 3 Contents

I SURVEY 1

II GOVERNMENT

  1. Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR 8
  2. USSR Council of Ministers 8
  3. All-Union Ministries 9
  4. Union Republic Ministries 9
  5. All-Union State Committees 10
  6. Union-Republic State Committees 10
  7. Agencies of the Council of Ministers Without Ministerial Rank 11
  8. Chairmen of Republic Councils of Ministers 12
  9. Heads of State 12
  10. The Judiciary 12
  11. Supreme Courts of the Republics 13
  12. Soviet Ambassadors 14
  13. Addresses of Soviet Embassies 16
  14. Diplomatic Representatives Accredited to the USSR(Moscow) 19
  15. Meetings Between the President of France and Brezhnev, 1970-78 21
  16. Meetings Between the President and Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany and Brezhnev, 1970-78 21
  17. Members of the Soviet Delegation to SALT II 22
  18. Planning Agencies 22
  19. Administrative-Territorial Units by Union Republics (1 Jan 1977) 23
  20. Aides to L.I. Brezhnev and A.N. Kosygin 24
  21. CMEA Organization 25
  22. CMEA Sessions, 1949-78 25
  23. International Communist Governmental Organizations 26
  24. Agencies to Coordinate Research and Development, 1948-78 27
  25. Contributions to the United Nations, 1975-76 27
  26. Constitution (Fundamental Law) of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic adopted 12 Apr 1978 28
  27. Georgian, Armenian and Azerbaidzhani Constitutions on National Languages 48
  28. Agreement on the Development and Deepening of Long-Term Cooperation Between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the Federal Republic of Germany in the Field of the Economy and Industry, 6 May 1978 48
  29. Secrets Law of 1956 and 1971* 50

III COMMUNIST PARTY

  1. Party Members by Sectors of the Economy 52
  2. Party Membership by Nationality, 1 Jan 1977 52
  3. Tenure of Party Members, 1 Jan 1977 52
  4. Candidates Enrolled in the Party by Occupation (percentage) 52
  5. Party Members by Education 53
  6. Party Enrollment 53
  7. Party Composition by Occupation (percentage) 54
  8. Party Organs (1 Jan) 54
  9. Members of Party Organs 54
  10. Primary Party Organizations by Members 55
  11. Biographies of Politburo Members and Candidate Members 55
  12. CPSU Politburo 64
  13. Size of Central Committee and Auditing Commission at Post-October 1917 Party Congresses 66
  14. Size of Presidium, Secretariat, Editorial and Mandate Commissions at Post-October 1917 Party Congresses 66
  15. Retention of Full Members of Central Committee from Preceding Party Congress 67
  16. Foreign Parties Represented at Congresses CPSU 67
  17. Affiliation of Full Members of the Central Committee, XXVth Party Congress (1976) 67
  18. Party Aktiv or Committee Corps, 1968 and 1976 68
  19. Jews in the Communist Party (percentage) 69
  20. Republic First Secretaries 69
  21. Republic Party Congresses 69
  22. Komsomol Leaders (elected 28 Apr 1978) 73
  23. Monthly Party Dues 74
  24. World Strength of Communist Parties 75
  25. Major Communist Front Organizations 78

IV AUTONOMOUS OBLASTS, OBLASTS, KRAIS, AND CITIES

  1. Armenia 79
  2. Azerbaidzhan 79
  3. Belorussia 79
  4. Estonia 79
  5. Georgia 79
  6. Kazakhstan 80
  7. Kirgizia 81
  8. Latvia 81
  9. Lithuania 81
  10. Moldavia 81
  11. RSFSR 81
  12. Tadzhikistan 86
  13. Turkmenistan 86
  14. Ukraine 87
  15. Uzbekistan 88

V DEMOGRAPHY

  1. Population, Birth and Death Rates, 1917-78 90
  2. Births by Age Groups (per 1000 women in age groups) 91
  3. Births in Urban and Rural Localities (per 1000 persons) 91
  4. Mortality by Age Groups (per 1000 persons in age group) 92
  5. Cities with Over 250,000 Inhabitants, 1977 92
  6. Jewish Population in Major Cities* 95
  7. Working-Age Population by Republics (second half of 1980s) 95

VI ARMED FORCES

  1. Ministry of Defense 97
  2. Ministries of the Defense Industry 99
  3. Personnel 100
  4. Soviet Forces and Systems, Jan 1978 101
  5. Soviet Buildup in Eastern Europe 103
  6. Likely Avenues of Attack by Warsaw Pact Forces (Map) 104
  7. Balance of Nato/Warsaw Pact Ground Forces on the Central Front 105
  8. Soviet Buildup in Asia 105
  9. Mutual Reduction of Forces and Armaments and Associated Measures in Central Europe (MURFAAMCE) 105
  10. Soviet Activities Near Norway 107
  11. Strategic Arms Limitation Agreements 107
  12. Major Soviet and Warsaw Pact Exercises, 1961-1978 108
  13. Defense Expenditures by Services (percentages) 110
  14. Military Expenditures: USSR 110
  15. Military Expenditures: Warsaw Treaty Organization (WTO) 111
  16. Military Expenditures: NATO 111
  17. Arms Transfers: USSR (million $) 112
  18. Arms Transfers: Warsaw Pact (million $) 112
  19. Numbers of Weapons Exported, 1967-76 113
  20. Deployment of the Soviet 16th Air Army in the German Democratic Republic 113
  21. Soviet Port Visits, 1953-73 114
  22. Cumulative Port Visit Days in the Indian Ocean, 1977 115
  23. Ship Design Priorities (for 1974) 115
  24. General Comparison of Soviet and US Naval Capabilities 116
  25. Soviet Naval Career Patterns 116
  26. Particle Beam Weapons Assessment 116
  27. Kiev Aircraft Carrier 117
  28. Evolution of the Soviet Main Battle Tank 117
  29. Assessment of a Medium Tank Company 118
  30. Comparison of US and USSR Tanks 119
  31. Tank Performance 120
  32. Civil Defense 122
  33. Chiefs of Staff, Republic Civil Defense 123
  34. Acquisition Dates of Strategic Weapons Systems 123
  35. USSR and United States Research and Development 124

VII THE ECONOMY

  1. State Budget, 1978-1979 (billion rubles) 126
  2. Revenues of the State Budget, 1966-77 (billion current rubles) 126
  3. Expenditures of the State Budget, 1966-77 (billion current rubles) 127
  4. State Budgets of Union Republics, 1978-79 (thousand rubles) 128
  5. Revenue of the RSFSR State Budget (million rubles) 129
  6. Expenditures for Science in the State Budget, 1965-78 (billion current Rubles) 129
  7. Summary of 1978-79 Plan (percentage) 130
  8. 1979 Plan in Physical Terms 131
  9. Growth of Gross National Product by Sector (average annual percentage change) 132
  10. Growth of Gross National Product, Factor Supplies, and Factor Productivity (average annual percentage change) 132
  11. Shares of Gross National Product 132
  12. Gross Capital Investments, 1976-77 (million rubles in comparable values) 133
  13. Indicators of Economic Development, 1976, 1977 133
  14. Industrial Production in Physical Terms by Quarters, 1978 133
  15. Industrial Production in Physical Terms, 1978 135
  16. Estimated Machinery Orders Placed With Hard Currency Nations, 1977 (million dollars) 137
  17. 1978 Plan Fulfillment by Ministries and Departments 138
  18. 1978 Plan Fulfillment by Republics 139
  19. Industrial Capacities Put in Operation, 1978 139
  20. Major Light Industry Projects in 1978 (Map) 140
  21. Planned Territorial-Production Complexes, 1976-80 142
  22. Major Shipyards 143
  23. Automotive Industries 143
  24. Contribution of Siberia and the Far East to the Soviet Economy (percentage of national output) 144
  25. Major Steel and Iron Projects in 1978 (Map) 146
  26. Iron and Steel Production 1970-1977 (million metric tons) 148
  27. Production of Cast Iron, Steel, Rolled Ferrous Metals and Steel Pipes, 1913-1977 (thousand metric tons) 150
  28. Production of Equipment for Various Industries 150
  29. Chemical Output, 1965-1977 (thousand metric tons) 151
  30. Major Chemical Projects in 1978 (Map) 152
  31. New Types of Machines, Equipment, Apparatus, and Instruments 154
  32. Industrial Air Pollutants, late 1960s 154
  33. Production of Mineral Commodities, 1977 (thousand metric tons) 155
  34. Iron Ore Production (million metric tons) 156
  35. Development of Computers 157
  36. Average Retail Price Changes, 1 Mar 1978 (percentage) 158
  37. Selected Consumer Prices 158
  38. Indices of CMEA Growth, 1977 159
  39. Foreign Currency Exchange Rates (Dec 1978) (Rubles per 100 units of foreign currency) 160
  40. Ruble-Dollar Exchange Rates 162
  41. Black Market Rates, January 162
  42. Retail Turnover of State and Cooperative Trade, 1976-77 (million rubles) 162
  43. Claims of US Banks on the USSR, 31 Dec 1977 (million dollars) 164

VIII ENERGY

  1. Fuel Production, 1976-77 165
  2. Oil Consumption 165
  3. Wells Drilled for Petroleum, 1975 165
  4. Major Power and Fuel Projects in 1978 (Map) 166
  5. Regional Crude Oil Production (million barrels per day) 168
  6. Giant Oilfields, 31 Dec 1975 (million barrels) 168
  7. Regional Natural Gas Production (billion cubic feet per day) 170
  8. Natural Gas Consumption (billion cubic feet per day) 170
  9. Gas Well Depth (average, meters) 170
  10. Gas Reserves (A+B+C1) and Reserves/Production Ratio (billion cu meters) 170
  11. New Pipelines, 1978 171
  12. Major Gas Trunklines by Size 171
  13. Estimated Installed Nuclear Power and Plutonium Production, 1980 172
  14. Nuclear Materials Delivered by the USSR as a Member of the International Atomic Energy Agency to 31 Dec 1976 172
  15. Soviet-Supplied Nuclear Power Reactors Apr 1977 173
  16. Coal Production (million metric tons) 173

IX AGRICULTURE

  1. 1978 Agriculture Summary (million metric tons) 175
  2. Feed Output by Type, 1971-77, 1980 176
  3. Agricultural Targets for the Five Year Plan (1976-80) (million) 177
  4. Areas of Agricultural Underfulfillment 178
  5. Twelve Resolutions on Agriculture, Adopted by the Central Committee and the Council of Ministers, 3-4 Jul 1978 178
  6. Gross Harvests and Yields, 1959-65, 1971-77 180
  7. Soviet Grain Production by Geoclimatic Area (Map) 181
  8. Grains: Area, Yield and Production, 1972-78 182
  9. Sown Area 182
  10. Private Agricultural Production 183
  11. Major Agricultural Construction Projects in 1978 (Map) 184
  12. Sugar Production (thousand tons) 186
  13. Investment in Agriculture, 1965-76 (million rubles) 187
  14. Agricultural Subsidies (billion rubles) 187
  15. Total Land Area and Distribution of Agricultural Land by Republics, 1 Nov 1976 (million hectares) 188
  16. Total Land Area and Distribution of Agricultural Land by Land Users, 1 Nov 1970 and 1976 (million hectares) 189
  17. Predominately Spring Wheat Areas. Status of Vegetative Activity as Indicated by Landsat Imagery June 30 to July 17, 1978 (Map) 190
  18. Forests, 1 Jan 1973 191
  19. Virgin Lands in Kazakhstan, 1954-77 191
  20. Volume of Long-Log Deliveries to Processing Plants, 1976 (thousand cu m) 191
  21. Production of Principal Forest Products 192
  22. Fish Catch by Species, 1976 (metric tons) 193
  23. Catch by Fishing Areas, 1965, 1970, 1975-76 (thousand metric tons) 194
  24. Fish Catch in Inland Waters, 1976 (metric tons) 195
  25. Fish Products, 1976 195
  26. Whale Catch, 1973-77 195
  27. Floating Whaling Factories, 1973 197

X FOREIGN TRADE & AID

  1. Soviet Trade with Selected Countries 1977-78 (million dollars) 198
  2. Foreign Trade, 1970-77 (billion dollars) 198
  3. Foreign Trade by Country Category, 1946-77 (percentage) 198
  4. Foreign Trade by Countries, 1976 (million rubles) 199
  5. Soviet-Australian Trade, 1974-77 (thousand Australian dollars) 201
  6. Shipments to the USSR by Major Grain Exporters, 1976-78 (thousand m tons) 202
  7. Imports and Exports of Stamps, 1960, 1970-76 (thousand rubles) 202
  8. Soviet-Japanese Trade, 1970-76 (thousand rubles, in values of corresponding years) 203
  9. Imports of Energy Equipment and Technology, 1970-76 (thousands of rubles) 209
  10. Soviet-Linked Commercial Enterprises in the West 210
  11. Banks and Insurance Firms 211
  12. Shipping, Shipping-Related (S) and Fishing Firms (F) 211
  13. Soviet Natural Gas Exports to East Europe, 1970, 1975 (percentage of total East European gas consumption) 212
  14. Aid Projects to Third World, 1 Jan 1978 212
  15. Economic Projects Abroad, 1945-1 Jan 1977 213
  16. Soviet-Cuban Trade and Aid 214
  17. Soviet Subsidies to Cuba, 1970-78 (million dollars) 214
  18. Soviet Economic Credits, Grants and Technicians to Less Developed Countries, 1954-77 214
  19. Soviet Military Aid to LDCs, Extensions and Drawings (million dollars) 216
  20. Soviet and East European Military Technicians in Less Developed Countries, 1977 216
  21. Military Personnel from Less Developed Countries Trained in the USSR, 1956-77 217

XI HEALTH, EDUCATION AND WELFARE

  1. Expenditures for Social-Cultural Measures in the State Budget, 1975-77 (million rubles) 218
  2. Number of Students by Instruction (bgn school year, thousands) 218
  3. Enrollment in Higher & Specialized Secondary Schools (thousands) 219
  4. Students in Higher and Secondary Specialized Institutions, 1977/78 (thousands) 219
  5. Graduate Students (Aspiranty) (year end) 220
  6. Universities 220
  7. Rents 221
  8. Diet 221
  9. Budgets of Industrial Worker and Collective Farm Families, 1976 221
  10. Household Stocks of Consumer Durables, 1977 222
  11. Physicians and Hospital Beds, 1977-78 222
  12. Middle-Level Medical Personnel by Republics (thousands) 223
  13. Housing Construction Needed to Reconstruct Rural Settlements Over 15 Years 223
  14. Apartments in Moscow by Number of Stories, 1966-1976 (percentage of total living space) 224
  15. Distribution of Household Responsibilities (percentage) 224

XII COMMUNICATIONS

  1. Publications, 1976 225
  2. Mail Traffic, Telephones in Use 225
  3. Circulation of Major Newspapers (thousand copies per run) 225
  4. Changes in Directors of Publishing Houses 226
  5. Changes in Chief Editors of Periodicals 226
  6. Changes in Chief Editors of Newspapers 227
  7. Books and Brochures in Languages of the USSR and Abroad, 1976 227
  8. Languages of the USSR 227
  9. Foreign Languages 228
  10. Translations from Languages of the USSR 229
  11. Translations from Foreign Languages 230
  12. Musical Publications, 1976 230
  13. Works of Lev Nikolaevich Tolstoi (1828-1910) 231
  14. New Soviet Films 231
  15. Major Cinemas in Moscow 232

XIII TRANSPORTATION

  1. Transportation Targets of the 10th Five Year Plan 234
  2. 1978 Transportation Summary 234
  3. Transport of Foreign Trade Cargoes, 1976 (thousand tons gross weight) 234
  4. New Railroad Lines, 1978 235
  5. Status of Soviet Railways 235
  6. Baikal-Amur Magistral (Railroad) 235
  7. Electric Transport (year end) 236
  8. Passengers by Electric Transport (millions) 237
  9. Taxis 237
  10. Road Construction and Improvements for the Moscow Olympics 237
  11. Transportation in Moscow 237
  12. Aviation 238

XIV INSTITUTIONS

  1. Academies of Science, 1 Jan 1977 239
  2. Exchange of Scientists Between the USSR and Japan, 1953-1975 241
  3. USSR Academy of Medicine, New Members Elected 7 Apr 1978 241
  4. Membership of the USSR Academy of Arts, 1978 241
  5. Members of the USSR Academy of Arts, 1948-74 242
  6. Art Institutes in Leningrad and Moscow, 1918-79 246
  7. State Universities 247
  8. Museums, 1976-77 (year end) 249
  9. Mass Libraries, 1913-1977 (year end) 249
  10. Military Academies 250
  11. Trade Union Chairmen, Membership, and Primary Organizations by Republics, 1 Jan 1977 252
  12. Churches in the Soviet Union 253
  13. Congresses of Writers 254

XV SPECIAL TOPICS

  1. 1978 in Review 255
  2. Satellite Launches, 1978 268
  3. Killer-Satellite Tests 270
  4. Presumed Civil and Military Space Launchings, 1957-77 271
  5. Summary of Successful Space Launches by Site, 1955-77 271
  6. Soviet Space Launches and Failures, 1957-77 271
  7. Failures 272
  8. Soviet and US Space Payloads by Mission, 1957-77 272
  9. Space and Missile Monitoring and Control Ships 274
  10. Annual Criminal Convictions 276
  11. Tourism, 1976 276
  12. Travelers by Republic, 1976 277
  13. Resorts 277
  14. Cities with Intourist Services 280
  15. Cities Open for Day Sightseeing (no overnight stops) 281
  16. Points of Entry and Exit for Motorists 281
  17. Major Moscow Restaurants, 1975 282
  18. Jewish Emigration from the Soviet Union (Vienna Arrivals), Monthly Totals, 1976-78 284
  19. Jewish Emigration from the USSR, 1972-77 284
  20. Emigration of Ethnic Germans from the USSR, 1972-77 284
  21. Private Visits to Relatives in the United States, Binational Marriage Cases with American Citizens, Family Reunification Requests 284
  22. Brezhnev Anthologies 285
  23. Samizdat Literature 285
  24. Soviet Sportsman of 1978 286
  25. Soviet Standings at the 19th World Gymnastics Championships, Strasbourg, France, 24-29 Oct 1978 287
  26. Soviet Membership in International Sports Associations 287
  27. Spy Schools for the Foreign Service 289
  28. Neutron Bomb Issue in Soviet Broadcasting, 4 Jul-21 Aug 1977 290
  29. Presumed Peaceful Nuclear Explosions of the USSR, 1961-76 290
  30. International Terrorist Incidents, 1965-76 291
  31. International Terrorist Incidents, 1968-77 291
  32. Moscow Directory for Tourists 291
  33. Major Earthquakes, 1973-78 292
  34. State Nature Reserves 293
  35. Wolves, 1978 293
  36. Water Consumption, 1964, 1970-72 (km3 per year) 294
  37. Depth Zones of the Oceans (areas in million sq miles) 294
  38. Frozen Regions (km2) 295
  39. Freezing of Major Rivers 295
  40. Surface-Water Resources: Rivers (thousand m3 annually/km2) 295
  41. Lakes and Inland Seas 296
  42. Lenin Prizes, 1978 296
  43. M.V. Lomonosov Gold Medal, 1977 297
  44. Nobel Prize for Physics, 1978 297
  45. State Prizes, 1978 297
  46. Obituaries, 1978 300
  47. Key Works on Russia and the Soviet Union 304

 

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