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Russia & Eurasia Facts & Figures Annual (REFFA)

(Formerly USSR Facts Figures Annual (UFFA))

REFFA/UFFA Contents

 

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UFFA Volume 12 Contents

Edited by Alan P. Pollard

ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS XV

INTRODUCTION XVI

I GOVERNMENT OF THE USSR

  1. Government News 1
  2. Personnel Changes 1
  3. USSR Ministries and Subministerial Agencies 1
  4. USSR Council of Ministers 4
  5. USSR Supreme Soviet 7

II COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE SOVIET UNION

  1. Party News 10
  2. Central Committee 12

III INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

  1. International Relations News 29
  2. USSR Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Officials 32
  3. Soviet Ambassadors 36
  4. State Committee for Foreign Economic Relations 42
  5. Diplomatic Ranks and Positions 43
  6. Union Republican Ministers of Foreign Affairs 43
  7. Memberships in International Organizations 44
  8. Foreign Liaison Organizations 53

IV ARMED FORCES

  1. Armed Forces News 60
  2. Military Officer Ranks 61
  3. Wartime Organization for Defense 62
  4. Peacetime Organization for Defense 63
  5. Defense Council 63
  6. Theaters of Military Operations 64
  7. Military Districts and Fleets 65
  8. Warsaw Pact Command Structure 65
  9. Ministry of Defense: Collegium, General Staff and Theater/ Regional Commands 67
  10. Turnover in Collegium and Commands February 1984-February 1987 70
  11. Soviet Military Leadership February 1984-February 1987 71
  12. Defense-Related Governmental Agencies 72
  13. Military Forces 73
  14. Warsaw Pact Armed Forces 74
  15. Theater Operations Forces 75
  16. Military Research Projects Benefitting from Western Technology, Early 1980s 77
  17. Military Relations with Third World 78
  18. Soviet Military Personnel in the Third World 78
  19. US/NATO-USSR/Warsaw Pact Comparisons 79
  20. Soviet Industrial Ministries That Support the Military 96
  21. Major Soviet Defense Industry Facilities 97
  22. Selected Acquisitions of Military Production Technology from the West 98

V POPULATION

  1. Population News 99
  2. Population 1960-1965 99
  3. Birth, Death and Natural Increase Rates 1940-1985 99
  4. Women in the USSR 100
  5. Urban and Rural Population 100
  6. Male and Female Population 101
  7. Social Class Composition of the Population 102
  8. Population of Union Republic Capitals and Cities of Over 500,000 Inhabitants 103

VI ECONOMY

  1. Economic News 104
  2. Labor Force 1940-1964 107
  3. Nonagricultural and Agricultural Labor Force 1970-1985 107
  4. Students in Labor Force 1964-1985 107
  5. Governmental Agencies
  6. Commission for the Improvement of Management. Planning. and the Economic Mechanism 108
  7. State Committee for Labor and Social Problems 108
  8. State Planning Committee 115
  9. State Committee on Prices 122
  10. Committee of People's Control 123
  11. Central Statistical Administration 124
  12. USSR State Bank 127
  13. Main Committee for Exhibition of Achievements of the National Economy 130
  14. State Board of Arbitration 131
  15. Economic Profile 1986 132
  16. Comparisons of Real GNP Growth 1971-1986 133
  17. Comparisons of Real GNP Growth 1961-1986 134
  18. Comparisons of Real GNP Per Capita Growth 1961-1986 135
  19. Estimated Real GNP 1960-1986 136
  20. Planned and Actual Economic Growth 1966-1986 136
  21. CIA and Soviet Measures of Economic Growth 1966-1986 137
  22. Percent Distribution of GNP at Factor Cost by End Use 138
  23. Growth of GNP at Factor Cost by End Use 1961-1986 138
  24. Share of GNP by Sector of Origin 1960-1986 139
  25. Growth of GNP by Sector of Origin 1981-1986 139
  26. Aggregate Factor Productivity 1981-1986 139
  27. GNP by End Use US and USSR 1986 140
  28. Commodity Production of US and USSR 1960-1986 141
  29. Comparisons of CPI 1960-1986 144
  30. Comparisons of Labor Force 1950-1986 145
  31. Comparisons of Nonagricultural Labor Force 1960-1986 140
  32. National Income in Actual Prices 147
  33. National Wealth in 1973 Prices 147
  34. Basic Indices of Economic Development for 11th 5-Year Plan 148
  35. National Income in 1973 Prices 148
  36. Basic Indices of Economic and Social Development 1940-1985 149
  37. Basic Indices of Economic and Social Development 1980-85 150
  38. Comparison of Some Indices of Economic Development of USSR and USA 1950-1984 151
  39. Labor Force 1940-1984 152
  40. Labor Force by Economic Sector 1940-1985 152
  41. Percentage of Labor Force in Economic Sectors 1940-1985 154
  42. Percentage of Labor Force in Goods and Services 1940-1985 155
  43. Non-Agricultural and Agricultural Labor Force 1970-1985 155
  44. Students in Labor Force 1984-1985 155
  45. Average Monthly Wage Including and Excluding Social Benefits 1940-1985 155
  46. Average Monthly Wage, Excluding Social Benefits. by Economic Sector 1940-1985 156
  47. Average Annual and Monthly Wage and Social Benefits of All Workers and Industrial Workers 1985 158
  48. Basic Indicators of Services to the Populations 1960-1985 158
  49. Service Establishments by Type 1975-1985 159
  50. Volume of Services by Type 1975 1984 160
  51. Retail Trade Governmental Agencies
  52. Ministry of Trade 161
  53. Central Union of Consumers' Cooperatives 163
  54. Sales of Consumer Goods, Indexed to 1940 1980-1985 165
  55. Sale of Consumer Goods, Indexed to 1970 1975-1985 166
  56. Sales of Foodstuffs 1960-1985 167
  57. Retail Trade Turnover 1940-1985 167
  58. Sales of Merchandise and Appliances 1960-1985 168
  59. Inventory of Consumer Durables 1960-1985 168
  60. USSR Committee for State Statistics Report on Fulfillment of the State Plan in 1987 169

VIII ENERGY

  1. Energy News 187
  2. Governmental Agencies
  3. Bureau for the Fuel and Energy Complex 187
  4. Ministry of Construction of Petroleum and Gas Industry Enterprises 187
  5. Ministry of Power and Electrification 189
  6. Commission on Questions of Developing the West Siberian Oil and Gas Complex 191
  7. Comparisons of Measures of Energy Efficiency 192
  8. Comparisons of Primary Energy Production 193
  9. Comparisons of Primary Energy Production, By Type 194
  10. Comparisons of Primary Energy Consumption 195
  11. Oil and Natural Gas Production/Apparent Consumption 1975-30 Sep 1987 196
  12. Oil Governmental Agencies
  13. Ministry of the Petroleum Industry 198 State Committee for the Supply of Petroleum Products 200
  14. Comparisons of Crude Oil Production 1950-1986 201
  15. World Crude Oil Production Excluding Natural Gas Liquids 202
  16. Comparisons of Crude Oil Refining Capacity, 1 Jan 1987 203
  17. Comparisons of Major Exporters of Oil 203
  18. Comparisons of Oil Export Revenues 204 Comparisons of Petroleum Pipelines 1960-1986 (ton/kin) 205
  19. Comparisons of Petroleum Pipelines 1960-1986 (mn tons m) 205
  20. Comparisons of Tanker Fleet Inventory 1965-1986 206
  21. Regional Production of Crude Oil 1975-1986 298
  22. USSR Imports of Oil 1977-1998 298
  23. Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products 209
  24. Gas Governmental Agency
  25. Ministry of the Gas Industry 210
  26. Comparisons of Natural Gas Production 1960-1986 213
  27. Regional Production of Natural Gas 1975-1986 214
  28. Natural Gas Trade 214
  29. Coal Governmental Agency
  30. Ministry of the Coal Industry 215
  31. Comparisons of Hard Coal Production 1960-1986 217
  32. Comparisons of Brown Coal and Lignite Production 1980-1986 218
  33. Electricity Governmental Agency
  34. Ministry of the Electrical Equipment Industry 219
  35. Comparisons of Electricity Production 1950-1986 221
  36. Comparisons of Installed Electricity Generating Capacity 1980-1986 222
  37. Comparisons of Electric Generator Production 1960-1986 223
  38. Comparisons of Turbine Production 1980-1986 223
  39. Nuclear Governmental Agencies
  40. Ministry of Atomic Power 224
  41. State Committees for Utilization of Atomic Energy 224
  42. State Committee for Safety in the Atomic Energy Industry 224
  43. Comparisons of Installed Nuclear Generating Capacity 225

VIII INDUSTRY

  1. Industry News 226
  2. Comparisons of World Crude Steel Production. 1960-1998 226
  3. Comparisons of World Passenger Auto Production, 1980-1986 228
  4. Comparisons of Index of Industrial Production for Selected Countries 229
  5. Comparisons of Industrial Employment 1980-1986 230
  6. Industrial Factor Productivity 231
  7. Index of Industrial Production 1960-1986 231
  8. Industrial Production by Branch of Industry, 1961-1986 232
  9. Comparison of Output of Basic Industrial Products of USSR and USA, 1940-1985 233
  10. Selected Civilian Use Goods Produced by Defense Industries 233
  11. Industrial Rank in the World and in Europe. 1913 and 1985 234
  12. Output of Mining and Manufacturing 1970-1985 235
  13. Industrial Output by Industry, Indexed to 1940, 1980-1985 235
  14. Industrial Output by Industry, Indexed to 1970, 1975-1985 236
  15. Industrial Output by Industry, Indexed to 1980. 1981-1985 236
  16. Growth Rates of Industrial Output of Some Territorial Production Complexes 1981-1985 237
  17. Growth Rates of Output of Capital Goods and Consumer Goods 1976-1985 237
  18. Output of Basic Industrial Products 1940-1985 238
  19. Mechanization and Automation of Industrial Production 1971-1985 244
  20. Industrial Work Teams 1980-1984 244
  21. Labor Productivity by Industry, Indexed to 1940, 1980-1985 245
  22. Labor Productivity by Industry, Indexed to 1970, 1970-1985 245
  23. Labor Productivity by Industry, Indexed to 1980, 1981-1985 246
  24. Mining Governmental Agencies
  25. Ministry of Geology 246
  26. Ministry of Mineral Fertilizer Production 247
  27. Ministry of Nonferrous Metallurgy 248
  28. State Committee for Material Reserves 250
  29. State Commission for Useful Mineral Reserves 250
  30. Comparisons of Iron Ore Production, 1960-1986 251
  31. Comparisons of Manganese Ore Production, 1960-1986 252
  32. Comparisons of Tungsten Ore Production, 1950-1986 253
  33. Comparisons of Chromite Production, 1980-1986 254
  34. Comparisons of Bauxite Production, 1960-1986 255
  35. Comparisons of Refined Nickel Production. 1960-1986 256
  36. Comparisons of Refined Copper Production, 1950-1986 257
  37. Comparisons of Primary Aluminum Production, 1950-1986 258
  38. Comparisons of Smelter Production of Lead, 1960-1986 259
  39. Comparisons of Refined Zinc Production. 1950-1986 250
  40. Comparisons of Titanium Sponge Metal Production. 1950-1986 261
  41. Comparisons of Cobalt Production, 1980-1986 261
  42. Comparisons of Smelter Production of Primary Tin, 1960-1986 262
  43. Comparisons of Primary Magnesium Production, 1950-1986 253
  44. Comparisons of Gold Production, 1980-1986 253
  45. Comparisons of Platinum-Group Metals Production, 1980-1986 264
  46. Comparisons of Molybdenum Production, 1950-1986 264
  47. Supply of Mineral Fertilizers to Agriculture by Type 1940-1985 265
  48. Construction Governmental Agencies
  49. Ministry of Construction in the Eastern Regions of the USSR 265
  50. Ministry of Construction in the Northern and Western Regions of the USSR 265
  51. Ministry of Construction in the Southern Regions of the USSR 267
  52. Ministry of Construction in the Urals and West Siberia Regions of the USSR 269
  53. Ministry of the Construction Materials Industry 271
  54. Ministry of Installation and Special Construction Work 274
  55. State Committee for Civil Construction and Architecture 276
  56. State Construction Committee 277
  57. Gross Fixed Capital Investment by Function and by Sector 1950-1986 278
  58. Stock of Fixed Capital by Sector 1960-1986 279
  59. Housing Construction in US and USSR 1960-1986 279
  60. Comparisons of Cement Production 1950-1986 280
  61. Commissioned Fixed Assets in 1984 Prices 1918-1985 281
  62. Principal Productive Capacities Commissioned by New Construction Expansion and Reconstruction 1971-1985 282
  63. Commercial Construction Output under State Contract 1981-1964 283
  64. Productive Capacities Commissioned by Reconstruction 1976-1985 284
  65. Investments in Fixed Assets 1918 1985 284
  66. Investments in Capital and Non-capital Assets from 7th to 11th 5-Year Plans 285
  67. State Investments in Construction from 7th to 11th 5-Year Plan 285
  68. Construction and Installation Carried Out by Contractually and Non-contractually for State and Cooperative Enterprises and Organizations and Collective Farms 1918-1985 286
  69. Workers Engaged in Construction and Installation Per Million Rubles of Work Carried Out 1971-1984 287
  70. Construction Contract Work Teams, 1975-1985 287
  71. Machine Building Governmental Agencies
  72. Bureau of Machine Building 288
  73. Ministry of Chemical and Petroleum Machine Building 288
  74. Ministry of Construction, Road and Municipal Machine Building 290
  75. Ministry of Heavy and Transport Machine Building 292
  76. Ministry of Machine Building for Animal Husbandry and Fodder Production 294
  77. Ministry of Machine Building for Light and Food Industry and Household Appliances 295
  78. Ministry of the Machine Tool and Tool Building Industry 295
  79. Ministry of Power Machine Building 297
  80. Ministry of Tractor and Agricultural Machine Building 297
  81. Comparisons of Metalcutting Machine Tool Production, 1960-1986 299
  82. Comparisons of Metalforming Machine Tool Production, 1960-1986 300
  83. Comparisons of Grain Combine Production, 1960-1986 300
  84. Comparisons of Tractor Production, 1980-1986 301
  85. Supply of Tractors and Agricultural Machines to Agriculture 1940-1985 302
  86. Iron Governmental Agency
  87. Ministry of Ferrous Metallurgy 303
  88. Comparisons of Pig Iron Production, 1980-1986 306
  89. Comparisons of Crude Steel Production, 1960-1986 307
  90. Comparisons of Rolled Steel Production, 1950-1986 398
  91. Chemical Governmental Agencies
  92. Ministry of the Chemical Industry 309
  93. Ministry of the Petroleum Refining and Petro-Chemical Industry 311
  94. Comparisons of Caustic Soda Production, 1950-1986 313
  95. Comparisons of Synthetic Ammonia Production, 1950-1986 314
  96. Comparisons of Sulfuric Acid Production, 1960-1986 315
  97. Comparisons of Chemical Fertilizer Production, Nutrient Content, 1980-1986 316
  98. Comparisons of Nitrogen Fertilizer Production. Nutrient Content, 1980-1986 317
  99. Comparisons of Phosphate Fertilizer Production, Nutrient Content. 1960-1986 318
  100. Comparisons of Potassium Fertilizer Production. Nutrient Content, 1980-1986 319
  101. Comparisons of Plastics Production 1960-1986 320
  102. Comparisons of Synthetic Rubber Production, 1980-1986 321
  103. Comparisons of Rubber Tire Production, 1960-1986 322
  104. Supply of Feed Chemical Additives to Agriculture, 1970-1985 323
  105. Light Industry Governmental Agency
  106. Ministry of Light Industry 323
  107. Comparisons of Synthetic Fibers Production. 1960-1986 325
  108. All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions 326

IX AGRICULTURE

  1. Agriculture News 330
  2. Governmental Agency
  3. State Agroindustrial Committee 330
  4. Total Agricultural Production in Billions of Rubles at Comparable Prices 1971-1986 331
  5. Comparisons of Agricultural Production Index, 1985-1986 331
  6. Comparisons of Agricultural Labor Force, 1980-1986 332
  7. Comparisons of Chemical Fertilizer Consumption, Nutrient Content, 1960-1986 333
  8. Comparisons of Nitrogen Fertilizer Consumption. Nutrient Content, 1960-1986 335
  9. Comparisons of Phosphate Fertilizer Consumption, Nutrient Content 1960-1986 336
  10. Comparisons of Potassium Fertilizer Consumption. Nutrient Content, 1950-1986 337
  11. District Agroindustrial Amalgamations by Republic 1 Jul 1984 338
  12. Production of Principal Food Products 1970-1985 338
  13. Agricultural Output by Category 1940-1985 339
  14. Output, Fixed Productive Assets and Employees of Agroindustrial Complex 1970-1985 340
  15. Growth Rates of Total Industrial Output by Branches of Agroindustrial Complex 340
  16. Growth Rates of Annual Average Gross Agricultural Output 1966 1985 340
  17. Gross Crop Output on Irrigated and Drained Lands of Agroindustrial Enterprises, in 1973 Prices, 1986-1985 340
  18. Growth Rates of Annual Average Gross Agricultural Output by Categories of Agricultural Enterprise 1966-1985 341
  19. Sowing Areas 1940-1985 341
  20. State Farms on Average 341
  21. Collective Farms on Average 1970-1984 342
  22. Basic Indicators of Collective Farm Development 1970-1985 342
  23. Basic Indicators of State Farms Development. 1970-1985 344
  24. Inter-Farm Enterprises and Organizations 344
  25. Agricultural Teams. Groups. Sections and Workers. 1982-1984 345
  26. Yield of Agricultural Crops 1940-1985 345
  27. Productive livestock, 1941-1986 346
  28. Output of Livestock Products 1940-1985 346
  29. State Purchases of Agricultural Products, 1940-1985 347
  30. Newly Irrigated, Drained and Cultivated Lands 346
  31. Average Annual Milk Yield Per Cow 346
  32. Meat Productions 348
  33. Investments in Agricultural Fixed Assets 349
  34. Tractors and Harvesters, 1940-1985 349
  35. Area and Use of Irrigated and Drainage Lands at Agroindustrial Enterprises 349
  36. Grain Governmental Agency
  37. Ministry of Grain Products 351
  38. Grain Production, 1971-1986 351
  39. Production of Major Field Crops Other Than Grains, 1971-1986 351
  40. Comparisons of Grain Yields, 1980-1986 352
  41. Comparisons of Total Grain Production, 1960-1986 353
  42. Comparisons of Wheat Production, 1980-1986 355
  43. Comparisons of Coarse Grains Production. 1960-1986 356
  44. Comparisons of Rice Production, 1980-1986 357
  45. Comparisons of Potato Production 1960-1986 356
  46. Comparisons of Sugar Production, 1960-1986 359
  47. Comparisons of Soybean Production, 1960-1986 360
  48. Comparisons of Ginned Cotton Production, 1980-1986 361
  49. Comparisons of Cattle Numbers, 1960-1986 362
  50. Compansons of Hog Numbers, 1960-1986 363
  51. Comparisons of Meat Production, 1960-1986 364
  52. Compansons of Milk Production, 1960-1986 365
  53. Comparisons of Wool Production, 1960-1986 366
  54. Production of Animal Products, 1971-1986 367
  55. Fish Governmental Agency
  56. Ministry of the Fish Industry 367
  57. Comparisons of Fish Catch, 1980-1986 370
  58. Comparisons of Fishing Fleet Inventory, 1970-1986 371
  59. Forestry Governmental Agencies
  60. Ministry of the Timber. Pulp and Paper and Wood Processing Industry 372
  61. State Committee for Forestry 373
  62. Comparisons of Newsprint Production, 1980-1986 375
  63. Comparisons of Plywood Production, 1960-1986 376
  64. Water Governmental Agency
  65. Ministry of Land Reclamation and Water Resources 377

X TRANSPORT

  1. Transport News 379
  2. Transportation Governmental Agency
  3. Ministry of Transport Construction 379
  4. Tons of Freight Carried by Type of Transport 1940-1985 381
  5. Ton-Kilometers of Freight Traveled by Type of Transport 1940-1985 382
  6. Passengers Carried by Type of Transport 1940-1985 383
  7. Passenger-Kilometers Traveled by Type of Transport 1940-1985 383
  8. Automotive Governmental Agency
  9. Ministry of the Automobile Industry 384
  10. Comparisons of Passenger Automobile Production 1980-1986 385
  11. Comparisons of Truck and Bus
  12. Production. 1960-1986 386
  13. Comparisons of Motor Vehicle Freight by Billion Metric Ton Kilometers, 1960-1986 387
  14. Comparisons of Motor Vehicle Freight by Million Metric Tons Carried, 1960-1986 388
  15. Motor Transport Teams 1980-1984 389
  16. Railway Governmental Agency
  17. Ministry of Railways 389
  18. Comparisons of Railroad Freight Car Production, 1980-1986 394
  19. Comparisons of Railroad Freight Car Inventory, 1960-1986 395
  20. Comparisons of Mainline Locomotive Inventory, 1960-1986 398
  21. Comparisons of Railroad Freight, 1980-1986 (mn m ton/km) 397
  22. Comparisons of Railroad Freight, 1980-1986 (mn m tons carried) 398
  23. Means of Traction, 1940-1984 398
  24. Shipping Governmental Agencies
  25. Ministry of the Maritime Fleet 398
  26. Ministry of the Shipbuilding Industry 403
  27. Comparisons of Inland Water Freight, 1980-1986 (bn m ton/km) 404
  28. Comparisons of Inland Water Freight, 1980-1986 (mn m tons carried) 405
  29. Comparisons of Ocean Freight, 1985-1986 406
  30. Comparisons of Merchant Fleet Inventory, 1965-1985 407
  31. Aviation Governmental Agency
  32. Ministry of Civil Aviation 409
  33. Comparisons of Air Passengers 412
  34. Comparisons of Air Freight, 1980-1986 412
  35. Comparisons of Aircraft Inventory of US and USSR, 1960-1998 413

XI FOREIGN TRADE

  1. Foreign Trade News 414
  2. Foreign Trade Governmental Agencies
  3. State Foreign Economic Commission 416
  4. Ministry of Foreign Trade 416
  5. State Committee for Foreign Tourism 421
  6. Chamber of Commerce and Industry 423
  7. Foreign Trade in Rubies by Groups of Countries, 1950-1985 424
  8. Trade with CMEA Countries 1970 1985 425
  9. Foreign Trade in Dollars by Groups of Countries, 1960-1986 426
  10. Exports by Commodity, 1980-1985 427
  11. Imports by Commodity, 1980-1985 428
  12. East European Exports by Country, 1960-1998 429
  13. East European Imports by Country, 1960-1985 430
  14. Comparisons of Net Imports of Minerals and Metals as a Share of Consumption 1986 431
  15. Hard Currency Trade by Commodity 1970-1985 432
  16. Importance of Soviet Trade to Selected Western Countries, 1980-1985 433
  17. Hard Currency Trade with Non-Communist Countries, 1985-1986 434
  18. Hard Currency Balance of Payments, 1980-1986 435
  19. Hard Currency Debt to the West, 1971-1986 436
  20. Gold Production and Reserves, 1965-1986 436
  21. Average Annual Foreign Trade Exchange Rate of the Ruble in US Dollars 1971-1986 437
  22. Exchange Rates of Ruble 21 Oct 87 437

XII FOREIGN AID

  1. Foreign Aid News 438
  2. Soviet and East European Economic Aid Extended to LDCs 1954-1986 438
  3. Comparisons of Gross Official Bilateral Capital Flows to LDC 1977-1985 440
  4. Net Financial Flows to LDCs 1977-1985 441
  5. Communist Economic Aid to LDCs, Extensions and Drawings 1954-1998 442
  6. Communist Arms Transfers to LDCs. Agreements and Deliveries 1954-1986 442
  7. Economic Aid Extended to LDCs by Recipient 1954-1986 443
  8. Economic Aid Extended to Communist Countries 1954-1986 444
  9. Economic Assistance to Cuba 1981-1985 444
  10. Military Personnel From Noncommunist LDCs Trained in Communist Countries 1955-1986 445
  11. Military Personnel from Noncommunist LDCs Trained in Communist Countries 1986 446
  12. Communist Economic and Military Technicians in LDCs by Country 1986 447
  13. Academic, Technical and Military Trainees Departing from LDCs for Training in Communist Countries 1979-1986 449

XIII FINANCE

  1. Finance News 450
  2. Savings Bank Deposits 1980-1985 450
  3. Law on USSR State Budget for 1988 451
  4. State Budget, 1940-1985 452

XIV SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, SPACE

  1. Science News 453
  2. Expenditure on Science 1971-1985 453
  3. Research Workers by Degree and Rank 1960-1985 453
  4. Technology News 454
  5. Selected Advanced Manufacturing Technologies US/USSR 454
  6. Governmental Agencies
  7. State Committee for Inventions and Discoveries 455
  8. State Committee for Computer Technology and Information Science 455
  9. Automatic Control and Automatic Information Processing Systems 1971-1984 455
  10. Space News 456
  11. Governmental Agency
  12. Ministry of General Machine Building 457
  13. Soviet Space Launch Vehicles 457

XV LAW

  1. Law News 456
  2. Fluctuating Soviet Emigration 1970-1987 460

XVI CULTURAL LIFE

  1. Glasnost 461
  2. Restructuring 464
  3. 1987 State Prizes 464
  4. Cinemas and Cinemagoers 1940-1985 465
  5. Public Libraries and Clubs 1940-1985 466
  6. Participation in Sports 1960-1985 467
  7. Persons with Sports Ratings 1960-1985 467
  8. Sports Facilities 1980-1985 467

XVII COMMUNICATION MEDIA

  1. Communications News 468
  2. Basic Indicators of Communications 1940-1985 469

XVIII HEALTH

  1. Health News 470
  2. Comparisons of Number of Hospital Beds 471
  3. Basic Indicators of Health Services 1940-1985 472
  4. Comparisons of Number of Doctors 472

XIX EDUCATION

  1. Education News 473
  2. Educational Level of the Population 473
  3. Education Level of Economically Active Population by Social Group 1939-1986 473
  4. Students by Type of Education 1940-1986 474
  5. Educational Level of the Population by Sex 1939-1986 474
  6. Educational Level of Manual and Brain Workers 1939-1986 474
  7. Recipients of Higher and Secondary Education, Complete and Incomplete, 1939-1986 475
  8. Educational Level of Economically Active Specialists 1941-1985 475
  9. Recipients of Secondary (General and Specialized) Education 475
  10. General Educational Schools 1940-1986 475
  11. Prolonged-Day Schools 1960-1986 476
  12. Graduates of General Education Schools 1940-1985 476
  13. Graduates of Higher Educational Institutions 476
  14. Comparisons of Number of Higher Education ca. 1985 477
  15. Higher Educational Institutions 1940-1986 477
  16. Graduates of Specialized Secondary Schools 1940-1986 478
  17. Specialized Secondary Schools 1940-1986 478

XX WELFARE

  1. Material Welfare and Cultural
  2. Standards 1940-1985 479
  3. PCI 1970-1985 481
  4. Real Incomes 1975-1987, Indexed to 1970 481
  5. Allowances and Benefits Received from Social Consumption Funds 1940-1985 481
  6. State Investments in Housing 482
  7. Per Capita Consumption of Foodstuffs 1960-1985 482
  8. Flats Built and Parsons Receiving Improved Living Conditions from 7th to 11th 5-Year Plans 483
  9. Living Space Built by Individuals and Cooperatives 483
  10. Urban Housing Conveniences 484
  11. Living Space 1980-1985 484
  12. Housing Construction 485
  13. Pensioners 485

XXI NATIONALITIES

  1. Nationalities News 466
  2. Territory and Population of the Union Republics 1940-1986 488
  3. National Composition of the Populations 1979 489
  4. Industrial Output of Union Republics for 1980-84 489
  5. Territory and Populations of the Autonomous Republics 1940-1986 490
  6. Industrial Output of Union Republics 1960-1985. Indexed to 1940 490
  7. Industrial Labor Productivity of Union Republics 1981-1985 491
  8. Industrial Output of Union Republics 1970-1985 491
  9. Gross Agricultural Output of Union Republics 1971-1984 492
  10. District Agroindustrial Amalgamations by Republic 1 Jul 94 492
  11. Students by Union Republic 1984-1985 493
  12. Doctors by Union Republics 1940-1984 493

XXII SPECIAL TOPICS

  1. Obituaries, 1987 494
  2. Chronological Summary of 1987 495
  3. Books of 1987 497

 

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