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Russia & Eurasia Facts & Figures Annual (REFFA)

(Formerly USSR Facts Figures Annual (UFFA))

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UFFA Volume 13 Contents

Edited by Alan P. Pollard

ABBREVIATIONS AND SOURCES xvii

INTRODUCTION xviii

I USSR BASIC DATA

  1. USSR Basic Information 1
  2. Basic Indicators 4
  3. Basic Indices of Economic Development 1917-1987 4
  4. Basic Indices of Economic Development 1913-1987 5
  5. Basic Indicators of Economic and Social Development 1960-1987 6
  6. Basic Indices of Economic and Social Development 1986 7
  7. Basic Indices of Economic and Social Development 1960-1987 8
  8. Annual Average Growth Rates of Basic Indices of Economic and Social Development 1961-1986 9
  9. Basic Indices of Economic and Social Development 1970-1986 10
  10. Some Indicators of Technological Level of Production 1970-1986 11
  11. Basic Indices of Capital Construction in Branch of Agroindustrial Complex 1971-1986 13
  12. Basic Indicators of Collective Farm Development 1970-1986 14
  13. Basic Indicators of State Farm Development 1970-1986 15
  14. Basic Indicators of Communications 1940-1986 16
  15. Basic Indicators of Services 1960-1986 17
  16. Basic Indicators of the Development of Health Services 1940-1986 17
  17. Comparison of Basic Indices of Economic Development of USSR and USA 1960-1985 18
  18. Comparison of Growth in Major Aggregate Economic Indicators 1981-1987 18

II GOVERNMENT OF THE USSR

  1. Political News 19
  2. Government Organizational Changes 21
  3. Government Personnel Changes 22
  4. Members of USSR Council of Ministers 24
  5. Overview of USSR Ministries and Subministerial Agencies 26
  6. Presidium and Secretariat of USSR Council of Ministers 28
  7. Standing Bodies of USSR Council of Ministers 29
  8. USSR Ministries 30
  9. USSR State Committees 53
  10. Agencies of USSR Council of Ministers 60

III COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE SOVIET UNION

  1. Party News 65
  2. Party Personnel Changes 67
  3. Politburo and Secretariat of CPSU Central Committee 69
  4. Commissions and Departments of CPSU Central Committee 70
  5. Members of Central Committee of CPSU 77
  6. Other CPSU Organizations 84
  7. CPSU Membership by Age 1 Jan 1987 86
  8. CPSU By Seniority 1 Jan 1987 86
  9. CPSU Social Structure 1 Jan 1987 87
  10. CPSU by Occupation 1 Jan 1987 87

IV INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

  1. International Relations News 88
  2. Representation Abroad 93
  3. Representation in International Organizations 106
  4. Propaganda and Foreign Liaison Organizations 109

V ARMED FORCES

  1. Armed Forces News 111
  2. Warsaw Pact Forces 115
  3. Theater/Regional Commands 116
  4. Military Academies 118
  5. DOSAAF 118
  6. Theaters of Operation 119
  7. USSR and US Surface Ships 120
  8. NATO and Warsaw Pact Combat Aircraft 121
  9. USSR/NSWP and NATO Production of Ground Forces Materiel 1984-1986 122
  10. Trends in Soviet and US Artillery. Tanks and Armored Vehicles 122
  11. USSR and NATO Missile Production 1984-1986 122
  12. USSR and NATO Aircraft Production
  13. 1984-1986 123
  14. CIA Estimates of and Soviet Statistics
  15. on Defense Expenditures 1965-1987 124
  16. Warsaw Pact and NATO Manpower 1960-1985 125
  17. Warsaw Pact and NATO Military Service Cohorts 1987-2010 127
  18. Ground Forces in European Theater 1987 128
  19. European Theater Ground Force Divisions 1981-1987 129
  20. Manpower of Non-Soviet Warsaw Pact Armies 1986 130
  21. Costs of Replacing East European Military Manpower: Men Under Arms 1985-1986 130
  22. Annual Soviet Costs of Fielding Substitute Forces 1980-1983 130
  23. Percentage of Arms Trade Estimates to Soviet Procurement Estimates 1980-1983 130
  24. East European Arms Trade 1970-1984 131
  25. Soviet-East European Arms Trade 1970-1984 132
  26. Relative Magnitude of Soviet-East European Arms Trade 1972-1984 133
  27. Warsaw Pact-NATO Forces, Jan 88 135

VI POPULATION

  1. Population News 136
  2. Population of Communist Countries 1960-1987 137
  3. Urban and Rural Population 1913-1987 138
  4. Social Class Composition of the Population 1913-1986 138
  5. Male and Female Population 1913-1987 138
  6. Population of Union Republic Capitals and Cities of Over 500,000 Inhabitants 1939-1987 139
  7. Birth, Death and Natural Increase Rates 1940-1986 140
  8. Average Life Expectancy 1896/97-1984/85 140 Mortality by Cause of Death 1970-1986 141
  9. Infant Mortality 1970-1986 141
  10. Estimates and Projections of Population 1950-2000 141
  11. Increase in Able-Bodied Population 1950-2000 142
  12. Population Distribution 1979 143
  13. Economically Active Population and Annual Rates of Growth by Sex 1950-2025 144
  14. Population 1986-1988 144
  15. Average Life Expectancy 1984-1987 144
  16. Total and Economically Active Population by Age Group 1950-2025 145

VII ECONOMY

  1. Economic News 146
  2. Trade Unions 147
  3. Central Union of Consumers' Cooperatives 150
  4. Representative Prices US and USSR Oct 1986 150
  5. Economic Profile 1987 150
  6. Estimated Real GNP 1960-1987 152
  7. GNP By End Use in US and USSR 1987 152
  8. Growth of GNP by Sector of Origin 1961-1987 152
  9. Comparisons of Real GNP Growth 1961-1987 153
  10. Real GNP Per Capita Growth 1961-1987 154
  11. Comparisons of Consumer Price Index 1960-1987 155
  12. Comparisons of Labor Force 1960-1987 156
  13. Comparisons of Nonagricultural Labor Force 1960-1987 157
  14. Share of GNP by Sector of Origin 1960-1987 158
  15. Growth of GNP at Factor Cost by End Use 1961-1987 158
  16. Percent Distribution of GNP at Factor Cost by End Use 1960-1987 159
  17. Planned and Actual Economic Growth 1966-1990 159
  18. Aggregate Factor Productivity 1961-1987 159
  19. Commodity Production of US and USSR 1960-1987 160
  20. Capital Elasticity Estimates 1969-1985 166
  21. Average Propensity to Save 1975-1987 166
  22. Estimates of Personal Savings 1955-1987 167
  23. Estimates of Savings Ratios 1955-1987 169
  24. Volume of State and Cooperative Retail Trade in Urban and Rural Areas 1950-1986 171
  25. Volume of Daily Services in Urban and Rural Areas 1960-1986 171
  26. Selected Measures of Retail Price Changes 1981-1988 171
  27. Collective Farm Markets of Selected Goods in Moscow 1970-1987 171
  28. National Wealth 1970-1986 172
  29. Fixed Assets Commissioned and Investments 1971-1986 172
  30. Renovation of Fixed Assets 1970-1986 172 Growth Rates of Fixed Assets 1960-1986 173
  31. Ratio of Fixed Productive Assets Discards 1970-1986 173
  32. Growth Rates of Fixed Productive Assets and Material Circulating Assets 1960-1986 174
  33. Annual Average Growth Rates of Labor Productivity 1961-1,986 174
  34. State Investments for Productive Purposes 1980-,986 175
  35. Mechanization of Labor 1975-1985 175
  36. Teams and Team Workers in Some Economic Sectors 1985 176
  37. Persons Working Under Full Self-Supporting and Self-Financing 176
  38. Labor Force by Economic Sector 1940-1986 176
  39. Labor Force in Goods and Services 1940-1986 177
  40. Nonagricultural and Agricultural Labor Force 1970-1986 177
  41. Students in Labor Force 1986 177
  42. Labor Force by Economic Sector 1940-1986 178
  43. Growth of Sales of Consumer Goods 1980-1986 178
  44. Retail Trade Turnover 1940-1986 180
  45. Sales of Foodstuffs 1980-1986 180
  46. Volume of Urban and Rural Services by Type 1986 180
  47. Sales of Merchandise and Appliances 1960-1986 181
  48. Inventory of Consumer Durables 1960-1986 181
  49. Comparison of Official Soviet Statistics on and CIA Estimates of Soviet Economic Growth 1966-1987 182
  50. Changes in Official Soviet Price Indexes for Retail Trade 1981-1987 182
  51. Comparison of Unofficial and Official Soviet Calculations of Growth of National Income 1961-1985 183
  52. Implicit Price Changes in Retail Trade 1981-1987 183
  53. Alternative Estimates of Growth of GNP by End Use at Factor Cost 1951-1986 183
  54. Alternative Estimates of Distribution of GNP by End Use at Factor Cost 1986 183
  55. Alternative Estimates of Growth of GNP by Sector of Origin at Factor Cost 1951-1986 184
  56. Bias in CIA Index of Soviet GNP by Sector of Origin: A First Approximation 184
  57. Bias in CIA Index of Soviet GNP by End Use: A First Approximation 186
  58. CIA Estimates of and Official Soviet Statistics on Economic Growth 1950-1987 187
  59. Growth of National Income Utilized by 5-Year Periods 1966-2000 188
  60. Distribution of GNP 1982 (CIA's Base Year) By Sector of Origin in Established and Factor-Cost Prices 188
  61. Distribution of GNP 1982 (CIA's Base Year) by End Use in Established and Factor-Cost Prices 189
  62. Current and Adjusted CIA Estimates of Growth of GNP by Sector of Origin 1951-1987 189
  63. Distribution of GNP by End Use 1987 Based on Current and Adjusted CIA Estimates of Hidden Inflation 190
  64. CIA Estimates of and Official Statistics on Economic Growth 1951-1987 190
  65. CIA Estimates of and Official Soviet Statistics on Economic Performance 1951-1987 190
  66. Current and Adjusted CIA Estimates of Growth of GNP by End Use 1951-1987 191
  67. Alternative Measures of Economic Growth 1951-1985 191
  68. Khanin's and Official Soviet Indices of Economic Development 1926-1985 191
  69. World Economy and International Relations Institute's Estimates of Average Annual Rates of Growth 1929--1986 192
  70. Khanin's, CIA and Official Soviet Indices of Economic Growth 1928-1985 192
  71. Economically Active Population in Agriculture. Industry and Services 1950-1980 192
  72. Labor Force Participation Rates by Age Group 1970 and 1979 192
  73. Economic Standing of Warsaw Pact and NATO Members 1960-1985 193
  74. Estimated and Projected Labor Force Participation Rates by Age and Sex 1959-2000 194
  75. Estimates and Projections of the Labor Force 1950-2000 195
  76. Annual Average Employment in the State Sector by Branch of the Economy 1950-1985 197
  77. Annual Average Employment in National Economy 1950-1985 198
  78. Estimates of Work-Hour Employment in Selected Nonagricultural Branches of Economy 1950-1985 199
  79. Estimates of Work-Hour Employment by Sector 1950-1985 200
  80. Hours Worked Annually Per Person in Selected Nonagricultural Branches of Economy 1950-1985 201
  81. Estimates of Work-Hour Employment in Private Subsidiary Economy 1950-1985 202
  82. USSR State Committee for Statistics Report. "To Accelerate the Economy's Reorientation Towards Man: The USSR's Socioeconomic Development in 1988" 202
  83. USSR Law on the State Plan for the Economic and Social Development of the USSR for 1989 216

VIII ENERGY

  1. Energy News 218
  2. Oil and Natural Gas Production/Apparent Consumption 1975-1988 218
  3. Comparisons of Crude Oil Production Excluding Natural Gas Liquids 1981-1988 219
  4. Comparisons of Crude Oil Production Excluding Natural Gas Liquids 1982-1988 220
  5. Comparisons of World Natural Gas Liquids (NGL) Production 1973-1987 221
  6. Regional Production of Crude Oil 1976-1987 222
  7. Imports of Oil 1977-1987 222
  8. Regional Production of Natural Gas 1976-1988 223
  9. Natural Gas Trade 1976-1987 223
  10. Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products 1976-1987 224
  11. Comparisons of Measures of Energy Efficiency 1975-1986 225
  12. Comparisons of Primary Energy Consumption 1960-1986 226
  13. Comparisons of Primary Energy Production 1960-1987 227
  14. Comparisons of Primary Energy Production by Type 1970-1987 228
  15. Comparisons of Crude Oil Refining Capacity 1 Jan 88 229
  16. Comparisons of Crude Oil Production 1960-1987 230
  17. Comparisons of Natural Gas Production 1960-1987 231
  18. Comparisons of Hard Coal Production 1960-1987 232
  19. Comparisons of Brown Coal and Lignite Production 1960-1987 233
  20. Comparisons of Installed Electricity Generating Capacity 1960-1987 234
  21. Comparisons of Installed Nuclear Electricity Generating Capacity 1960-1987 235
  22. Comparisons of Electricity Production 236
  23. Comparisons of Petroleum Pipelines 1960-1987 237
  24. Comparisons of Petroleum Pipelines 1960-1987 237

IX INDUSTRY

  1. Industrial News 238
  2. Official and Adjusted CEMA Indexes of Industrial Production 1960-1987 239
  3. Comparisons of Index of Industrial Production 1960-1987 240
  4. Comparisons of Industrial Employment 1960-1987 241
  5. Industrial Factor Productivity 1961-1987 242
  6. Industrial Production by Branch of Industry 1961-1987 242
  7. CEMA Manganese Ore Production 1960-1987 243
  8. Tungsten Ore Production 1960-1987 243
  9. Chromite Production 1960-1987 243
  10. Refined Nickel Production 1960-1987 244
  11. CEMA Refined Copper Production 1960-1987 244
  12. CEMA Smelter Production of Lead 1960-1987 245
  13. CEMA Refined Zinc Production 1960-1987 245 Smelter Production of Primary Tin 246
  14. CEMA Caustic Soda Production 1960-1987 246
  15. CEMA Synthetic Ammonia Production 1960-1987 247
  16. CEMA Sulfuric Acid Production 1960-1987 247
  17. CEMA Nitrogen Fertilizer Production, Nutrient Content 1960-1987 248
  18. CEMA Phosphate Fertilizer Production, Nutrient Content 1960-1987 248
  19. CEMA Potassium Fertilizer Production, Nutrient Content 1960-1987 249
  20. CEMA Electric Generator Production 1960-1987 249
  21. CEMA Turbine Production 1960-1987 250
  22. CEMA Metalcutting Machine Tool Production 1960-1987 250
  23. CEMA Grain Combine Production 1960-1987 251
  24. CEMA Tractor Production 1960-1987 251
  25. CEMA Railroad Freight Car Production 1960-1987 252
  26. CEMA Newsprint Production 1960-1987 252
  27. CEMA Plywood Production 1960-1987 253
  28. CEMA Cement Production 1960-1987 253
  29. Comparisons of Iron Ore Production 1960-1987 254
  30. Comparisons of Bauxite Production 1960-1987 255
  31. Comparisons of Pig Iron Production 1960-1987 256
  32. Comparisons of Crude Steel Production 1960-1987 257
  33. Comparisons of Rolled Steel Production 1960-1987 258
  34. Comparisons of Primary Aluminum Production 1960-1987 259
  35. Comparisons of Cobalt Production 1960-1987 260
  36. Comparisons of Gold Production 1960-1987 260
  37. Comparisons of Platinum-Group Metals Production 1960-1987 261
  38. Comparisons of Chemical Fertilizer Production, Nutrient Content 1960-1987 261
  39. Comparisons of Plastic Production 1960-1987 262
  40. Comparisons of Synthetic Rubber Production 1960-1987 263
  41. Comparisons of Synthetic Fibers Production 1960-1987 264
  42. Shares of Crude Steel and Passenger Automobile Production 1960 and 1970 265
  43. Total Industrial Output 1970-1986 266
  44. Growth Rates of Total Industrial Output by Industry 1980-1986 266
  45. Growth Rates of Labor Productivity by Industry 1980-1986 266
  46. Output of Basic Industrial Products 1940-1987 267
  47. Supply of Tractors, Trucks and Machines to Agriculture 1940-1986 270
  48. Supply of Mineral Fertilizers to Agriculture 1940-1986 271
  49. Supply of Feed Chemical Additives to Agriculture 1970-1986 271
  50. Growth of Fertilizer Deliveries to Agriculture 1965-1986 271
  51. Information for Computation of Production Index 1970-1985 272
  52. Information for Computation of Index of Material Expenditure 1970-1985 272
  53. Information for Computation of Production Index 1970-1985 272
  54. Growth Rates of Total Industrial Output of Some Territorial-Production Complexes 1980-1986 272
  55. Comparison of Different Measures of Industrial Production 1951-1965 273
  56. Annual Average Employment in Selected Branches of Industry 1950-1985 274
  57. Estimates of Work-Hour Employment in Industry 1950-1985 275
  58. Estimates of Work-Hour Employment in Selected Branches of Industry 1950-1985 276
  59. Hours Worked Annually per Person in Selected Branches of Industry 1950-1985 277
  60. Ratios of Worktime Per Worker in Selected Branches of Industry 1950-1985 278
  61. Estimates of Work-Hour Employment in Construction 1950-1985 279
  62. Alternative Measures of Growth of Machinery Output 1981-1985 280
  63. Annual Production of Motor Vehicles in USSR and Eastern Europe 1960-1986 280

X AGRICULTURE

  1. Agriculture News 281
  2. Comparisons of Agricultural Production Index 1965-1987 282
  3. Comparisons of Agricultural Labor Force 1960-1987 283
  4. CEMA Potato Production 1960-1987 284
  5. CEMA Cattle Numbers 1960-1987 284
  6. CEMA Hog Numbers 1960-1987 285
  7. CEMA Meat Production 1960-1987 285
  8. CEMA Milk Production 1960-1987 286
  9. CEMA Wool Production 1960-1987 286
  10. CEMA Ginned Cotton Production 1960-1987 287
  11. CEMA Chemical Fertilizer Consumption, Nutrient Content 1960-1986 287
  12. CEMA Nitrogen Fertilizer Consumption, Nutrient Content 1960-1986 288
  13. CEMA Phosphate Fertilizer Consumption, Nutrient Content 1960-1986 288
  14. CEMA Phosphate Fertilizer Consumption, Nutrient Content 1960-1986 289
  15. CEMA Grain Yields 1960-1987 289
  16. CEMA Total Grain Production 1960-1987 290
  17. CEMA Fish Catch 1960-1986 290
  18. Comparisons of Wheat Production 1960-1987 291
  19. Comparisons of Coarse Grain Production 1960-1987 292
  20. Comparisons of Rice Production 1960-1987 293
  21. Comparisons of Sugar Production 1960-1987 294
  22. Comparisons of Soybean Production. 1960-1987 295
  23. Comparisons of Fishing Fleet Inventory 1970-1987 296
  24. Farm Output After Adjusting for Weather 1968-1987 297
  25. Growth of Capital Investment and Employment in Agriculture 1965-1986 297
  26. Long-Run Trend in Farm Output After Adjusting for Weather 1968-1987 298
  27. Growth of Capital Stock in Agriculture 1965-1986 298
  28. Average Annual Growth Rates of Selected Inputs to Agriculture 1969-1986 299
  29. Total Factor Productivity in Soviet Agriculture. 1968-1987 299
  30. Projection of 5-Year Growth Rate of Farm Output Taking into Account Weather Uncertainties 300
  31. Estimated Agricultural Losses and Gains Due to Weather 1968-1987 300
  32. Prospects for Meeting the 12th 5-Year Plan Goal in Agriculture 301
  33. Productive Fixed Capital Stock and Capital Investment in Agriculture 1965-1987 301
  34. Agricultural Labor Coefficients. 1958 301
  35. Employment in Socialized Agriculture 1968-1986 302
  36. Private and Total Agricultural Employment 1968-1986 303
  37. Derivation of Value-Added, Weather Adjusted Farm Output 1968-1987 304
  38. Power Capacities in Agriculture 1940-1986 305
  39. Consumption of Electricity in Agriculture 1940-1986 305
  40. Power Supply per Worker and Power Capacities in Agriculture 1940-1986 305
  41. Output, Fixed Productive Assets and Employees of Agroindustrial Complex 1970-1986 305
  42. Growth Rates of Branches of Food Industry 1980-1986 305
  43. Average Monthly Remuneration of Collective Farmers 1970-1986 306
  44. Average Remuneration of Collective Farmers Including and Excluding Social Benefits 1986 306
  45. Output of Alcoholic Beverages and Tobacco Products 1970-1986 306
  46. Agricultural Output by Product 1940-1986 307
  47. Sowing Areas 1940-1986 309
  48. Productive Livestock 1941-1987 309
  49. Output of Livestock Products 1940-1986 309
  50. Meat Production 1940-1986 310
  51. Annual Average Milk Yield Per Cow 1940-1986 310
  52. Crop Yields 1940-1986 311
  53. Grain Harvests and Yields 1940-1986 311
  54. State Purchases of Agricultural Products 1940-1987 312
  55. State Purchases of Fruits. Berries, Grapes, Citruses and Crude Tea 313
  56. Irrigation and Reclamation 1971-1986 313
  57. Area and Use of Irrigated and Drained Land 313
  58. Regeneration of State Forests 1970-1986 313
  59. Gross Crop Output of Irrigated and Drained Land 1970-1986 314
  60. Tractors, Harvesters and Trucks in Agriculture 1940-1986 314
  61. Investments in Agricultural Fixed Assets 1966-1986 314
  62. Afforestations, Protected-Hunting Farms and Nature and National Parks 1976-1986 314
  63. Interfarm Enterprises and Organizations 1970-1986 315
  64. Forest Protection 1980-1986 315
  65. Felling in State Forests 1980-1986 315
  66. Forest Resources 1961-1983 315
  67. Annual Average Employment in Socialized Agriculture 1950-1985 316
  68. Estimates of Work-Hour Employment in Agriculture by Sector 1950-1985 317
  69. Estimates of Work-Hour Employment in State Agriculture 1950-1985 319
  70. Estimates of Work-Hour Employment on Collective Farms 1950-1985 320

XI TRANSPORT

  1. Transportation News 321
  2. Comparisons of Passenger Automobile Production 1960-1987 322
  3. Comparisons of Truck and Bus Production 1960-1987 323
  4. Comparisons of Rubber Tire Production 1960-1987 324
  5. Comparisons of Railroad Freight 1960-1987 325
  6. Comparisons of Railroad Freight 1960-1987 326
  7. Comparisons of Motor Vehicle Freight 327
  8. CEMA Motor Vehicle Freight 1960-1987 327
  9. Comparisons of Inland Water Freight 1960-1987 328
  10. CEMA Ocean Freight 1960-1987 328
  11. Comparisons of Inland Water Freight 1960-1987 329
  12. Comparisons of Air Passengers 1960-1987 329
  13. Volume of Shipping by Type of Transport 1940-1987 330
  14. Packaged Shipping 1970-1985 330
  15. Containerized Shipping 1970-1985 330
  16. Freight Traffic by Type of Transport 1940-1986 330
  17. Comparisons of Air Freight 1960-1987 331 US and USSR Civil Aircraft Inventory 1960-1987 331
  18. CEMA Merchant Fleet Inventory 1970-1987 332
  19. CEMA Tanker Fleet Inventory 1970-1987 332
  20. Passengers Carried by Type of Transport 1940-1986 333
  21. Passenger Traffic by Type of Transport 1940-1986 333

XII FOREIGN TRADE

  1. Foreign Trade News 334
  2. Foreign Trade Associations 337
  3. Representatives in United States 349
  4. Foreign Trade by Groups of Countries 1950-1986 350
  5. US Exports to and Imports from USSR 1970-1988 350
  6. US Grain Shipments to USSR 1976/77-1987/88 351
  7. Comparisons of Net Imports of Selected Commodities as a Share of Consumption 1987 351
  8. Estimated State Revenues from Foreign Trade 1970-1988 352
  9. Hard Currency Balance of Payments 1960-1987 352
  10. Hard Currency Trade by Commodity 1970-1986 353
  11. Hard Currency Trade with Noncommunist Countries 1986-1987 354
  12. Hard Currency Debt to the West 1971-1987 355 Gold Production and Reserves 1966-1987 355
  13. Comparisons of Oil Export Revenues 1975-1987 356
  14. Average Annual Foreign Trade Exchange Rates of the Ruble 1973-1987 356
  15. Importance of Soviet Trade to Selected Western Countries 1980-1986 357
  16. Comparisons of Major Oil Exporters 1970-1987 357
  17. Foreign Trade in Dollars by Groups of Countries 1960-1987 358
  18. Exports by Commodity 1960-1986 359
  19. Imports by Commodity 1960-1986 360
  20. East European Foreign Trade 1960-1987 361
  21. East European Exports by Country 1960-1987 362
  22. East European Imports by Country 1960-1987 363
  23. Chinese Trade with USSR 1965-1987 364 Cuban Trade with USSR 1965-1986 364
  24. Cuban Foreign Trade by Major Area 1980-1987 365
  25. Agricultural Imports 366
  26. Cuban Sugar Exports to USSR and Eastern Europe 1980-1987 367
  27. Foreign Trade 1985-1987 367

XIII FOREIGN AID

  1. Foreign Aid News 368
  2. Economic Aid to LDCs, Extensions and Drawings 1954-1987 369
  3. Arms Deliveries to LDCs 1954-1987 369
  4. Soviet and East European Economic and Military Technicians in LDCs by Country 1987 369
  5. Economic Aid to LDCs by Country 1954-1987 370
  6. Economic Aid to Communist Countries 1954-1986 371
  7. Economic Assistance to Cuba 1961-1986 371
  8. Academic, Technical and Military Trainees Departing from LDCs for Training in Communist Countries by Area of Destination 1979-1987 372
  9. Military Personnel from Non-Communist LDCs Trained in USSR 1987 373
  10. Military Personnel in Third World 373
  11. Major Arms Deliveries to Third World 1981-1986 373
  12. Cuban Foreign Trade Adjusted for Soviet Price Subsidies 1961-1986 374
  13. Soviet Hard Currency Flows to Cuba 1961-1986 374
  14. Comparison of US and USSR Military Deliveries by Region 1980-1985 375

XIV FINANCE

  1. Financial News 376
  2. State Budget of the USSR 1940-1986 376
  3. Savings Bank Deposits 1960-1986 377
  4. Estimated State Budget Deficit 1981-1988 377
  5. Annual Changes in State Spending and Revenues 1984-1988 378
  6. CIA Estimated Budget Deficit Versus Official Surplus 1971-1986 379
  7. USSR State Budget for 1989 379
  8. Miscellaneous State Budget Revenues 1970-1988 380
  9. Ordinary State Budget Revenues 1970-1988 380
  10. Estimated State Budget Deficit 1970-1988 381
  11. Sources of Finance of State Budget Deficit 1970-1988 381
  12. Sources of Finance of State Budget Deficit 1984-1988 382

XV SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, SPACE AND ENVIRONMENT

  1. Science News 383
  2. Technology News 383
  3. Space News 384
  4. Environmental News 386
  5. Number of Research Workers 1950-1986 389
  6. Expenditure on Science 1971-1986 389
  7. Number of Scientific Establishments 1940-1985 389
  8. State Investments in Protection and Rational Utilization of Natural Resources 1971-1986 389
  9. Official Soviet Statistics on Technological Progress 1961-1985 390
  10. Official Statistics on Economic Impact of New Technology 1960-1985 390
  11. Official Soviet Comparisons of Soviet and Western Lead Time in Developing and Applying Innovations 391
  12. Output of Advanced Industrial Products 1980-1987 391
  13. Inventions and Innovations 1971-1986 392
  14. Automatic Control Systems and Information Processing Systems 1971-1985 392
  15. Mechanization and Automation of Industrial Production 1971-1985 393
  16. US and USSR Piloted Space Flights 1961-1987 393
  17. Time Line of US and USSR Piloted Space Missions 1961-1987 400
  18. Soviet Launches by Site 1957-1987 402
  19. Soviet Space Launch Vehicles 402
  20. Comparison of US and USSR Space Shuttles 403
  21. Soviet Space Launches 1981-1987 404

XVI LAW

  1. Legal News 425
  2. Human Rights 427
  3. USSR Supreme Soviet 428
  4. USSR Supreme Court 430
  5. USSR Procuracy 430
  6. Laws, Decrees and Resolutions, 1988 430
  7. Convictions by Type of Crime 1985-1987 431
  8. Crime Trend 1985-1987 431

XVII CULTURE AND MEDIA

  1. Cultural News 432
  2. Communications Media News 437
  3. Cultural and Professional Organizations 439
  4. Religious Denominations 440
  5. Media 441
  6. Libraries and Holdings 1940-1985 444
  7. Public Libraries and Clubs 1940-1986 444
  8. Museums and Theaters 1940-1986 444
  9. Participation in Sports 1960-1986 445
  10. Sports Facilities 1960-1986 445
  11. Cinemas and Cinemagoers 1940-1986 445

XVIII HEALTH

  1. Health News 446
  2. Sales of Alcoholic Beverages and Tobacco Products 1960-1986 447
  3. Number of Days of Temporary Disability 1980-1986 447
  4. Hospital and Ambulatory/Outpatient Facilities Commissioned and Visited 1975-1986 447
  5. Comparison of Number of Doctors 447
  6. Comparison of Number of Hospital Beds 448
  7. Growth in Indicators of Retail Sales of Alcohol 1981-1986 448

XIX EDUCATION

  1. Education News 449
  2. Academic Institutions 449
  3. Number of People with Higher or Secondary Education 1939-1987 453
  4. Educational Level of the Population 1939-1987 453
  5. Educational Level of Economically Active Population by Social Group 1939-1987 453
  6. Educational Level of Blue Collar and White Collar Workers 1939-1987 454
  7. Educational Level of the Population by Sex 1939-1987 454
  8. Educational Level of Economically Active Specialists 1941-1986 454
  9. Students by Type of Education 1940/41-1986/87 455
  10. Recipients of Secondary (General and Specialized) Education 1918-1986 455
  11. Prolonged-Day Schools 1960/61-1986/87 455
  12. Vocational Education of Secondary School Seniors 1986/87 456
  13. General Educational Schools 1940/ 41-1986/87 456
  14. Percent of General Education Graduates Who Continue Education 1968-1986 456
  15. Graduates of General Education Schools 1940-1986 457
  16. Pre-Schools 1970-1986 457
  17. Specialized Secondary Schools 1940/41-1986/87 457
  18. Graduates of Specialized Secondary Schools 1940-1986 458
  19. Higher Educational Institutions 1940/41-1986/87 458
  20. Graduates of Higher Educational Institutions 1940-1986 458

XX WELFARE

  1. Welfare News 459
  2. Official Soviet and CIA Indexes of Real Per Capita Income 1970-1987 460
  3. Growth of Per Capita Consumption 1961-1987 461
  4. Per Capita Statistics on Selected Consumer Items 1965-1987 461
  5. Personal Disposable Money Income 1965-1987 462
  6. Personal Money Income 1965-1987 462
  7. Calculation of Personal Money Income 1950-1987 463
  8. Compulsory Deductions from Personal Money Income 1950-1987 466
  9. Estimates of Personal Disposable Money Income 1950-1987 467
  10. Growth of Money Income and Real Consumption 469
  11. Growth of Per Capita Income in US and USSR 1966-1985 469
  12. Soviet and CIA Indices of Growth of State Retail Prices 1971-1987 470
  13. Ownership of Durable Consumer Goods per 100 Families 1965-1986 470
  14. Average Monthly Wages of Collective Farmers, State Agricultural Workers and Industrial Workers 1950 1985 470
  15. Pensioners 1975-1987 470
  16. Average Monthly Pension 1975-1987 471
  17. Distribution of Pensioners by Size of Pension 471
  18. Material Welfare and Cultural Standards 1940-1986 471
  19. Average Monthly Money Wages and Salaries by Economic Sector 1940-1986 473
  20. Allowances and Benefits from Social Consumption Funds 1940-1986 474
  21. Average Monthly Wages and Salaries Including Social Benefits 1940 1986 474
  22. Number of Pensioners 1940-1986 474
  23. Urban Housing Conveniences 1970 1986 475
  24. Average Wages and Salaries Including and Excluding Social Benefits 1986 475
  25. Consumption of Foodstuffs 1960-1986 476
  26. Flats Built and Persons Receiving Improved Living Conditions 6th-11th 5-Year Plans 476
  27. Living Space 1980-1986 476

XXI NATIONALITIES

  1. Nationalities News 478
  2. Armenian SSR 485
  3. Azerbaijan SSR 486
  4. Belorussian SSR 486
  5. Estonian SSR 487
  6. Georgian SSR 487
  7. Kazakh SSR 488
  8. Kirgiz SSR 488
  9. Latvian SSR 489
  10. Lithuanian SSR 489
  11. Moldavian SSR 490
  12. Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic 490
  13. Tajik SSR 491
  14. Turkmen SSR 491
  15. Ukrainian SSR 492
  16. Uzbek SSR 492
  17. Major Ethnic Groups 1979-2050 493
  18. Volume of Retail Trade in Union Republics 1986 493
  19. Territory and Population of Union Republics 493
  20. Territory and Population of Autonomous Republics 1940-1987 494
  21. National Composition of the Population 494
  22. Growth Rates of Industrial Labor Productivity of Union Republics 1980-1986 495
  23. Growth Rates of Total Industrial Output of Union Republics 1986 496
  24. Gross Agricultural Output of Union Republics 1966-1986 496
  25. Growth Rates of Food Output of Union Republics 1980-1986 497
  26. Collective Gardens and Orchards in Union Republics 1985 497
  27. Services to Populations of Union Republic 1986 498
  28. Students in Union Republics 1986/87 498
  29. 20 Major Nationalities De Jure and De Facto 1979 499
  30. Life Expectancies at Birth by Nationality and Sex 1979 499
  31. Total Fertility Rates by Nationality 1969-1984 499
  32. Emigration of Jews, Germans and Armenians 1970-1985 500 Russian Share of
  33. Total Population by Age 1959, 1970 and 1979 500
  34. Doctors in Union Republics 1940-1986 501 Fertility Levels of European Union
  35. Republics 1970-1985 501
  36. Fertility Levels of Central Asian Union Republics 1970-1985 502
  37. Fertility Levels of Caucasian Union Republics 1970-1985 503
  38. Projected Fertility Levels of Soviet Nationalities 1984-2050 504
  39. Estimated and Projected Population by Major Nationality 1979-2050 505
  40. Projected Population by Major Nationality 1979-2050: Median Variant 506
  41. Projected Population Aged 15-19 by Major Nationality 1979-2050: Median Variant 507
  42. Estimated and Projected Population Aged 15-19 by Major Nationality 1979-2050 508 Distribution of Population by Major Nationality Under Alternative Fertility Scenarios 1979-2050 509
  43. Distribution of Population Ages 15-19 by Major Nationality Under Alternative Fertility Scenarios 1979-2050 509
  44. Distribution of Population by Major Nationality Groups in Broad Age Groups 1979-2050: Median Variant 510
  45. Projected Distribution of Population by Major Nationality Assuming High Fertility for Europeans and Low Fertility for Others 1979-2050 511
  46. Population Share of Major Nationality Groupings by Broad Age Groups 1979-2050: Median Variant 512
  47. Estimated and Projected Population by Major Nationality 1979-2050, Adjusted To Median Variant 513
  48. Ethnic Groups 1 Jan 1987 513
  49. Nationalities 1 Jan 1987 514

XXII SPECIAL TOPICS

  1. Obituaries, 1987 515
  2. Chronology Summary of 1988 516
  3. Further Sources of Information 523
  4. Books of 1987 524
  5. Books of 1988 529

 

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