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Russia & Eurasia Facts & Figures Annual (REFFA)

(Formerly USSR Facts Figures Annual (UFFA))

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UFFA Volume 14 Contents

Edited by Alan P. Pollard

ABBREVIATED TERMS AND SOURCES xvi

INTRODUCTION xvii

About UFFA xvii

Review of 1988 xix

I BASIC DATA

  1. Map 1
  2. Basic Information 2
  3. Basic Indices of Economic and Social Development 1980-1987 5
  4. Comparisons of Agriculture Production Index, 1965-1988 6
  5. Production of Commodities, US and USSR 1960-1988 7
  6. Basic Indices of Economic and Social Development 1960-1987 13
  7. Basic Indices of Plan Fulfillment 1985-1987 13
  8. Basic Indices of Plan Fulfillment 1987 14
  9. Annual Average Growth Rates of Basic Indices of Economic and Social Development 1961-1987 15
  10. Basic Indicators of Material Welfare and Cultural Standards 1940-1987 16
  11. Basic Indices of Economic and Social Development 1970-1987 18
  12. Daily Output 1940-1987 19
  13. Indicators of Technological Level of Production 1970-1987 19
  14. Basic Indices of Capital Construction in Branches of Agroindustrial Complex 1976-1987 22
  15. Basic Indicators of Collective Farm Development 1970-1987 23
  16. Basic Indicators of State Farm Development 1970-1987 24
  17. Basic Indicators in Subsidiary Agricultural Farms of Enterprises, Organizations and Institutions 1986-1987 25
  18. Basic Indicators of Industrial Enterprises in Agroindustrial Complex 1986 25
  19. Basic Indicators of Agricultural Construction Organizations 1986-1987 25
  20. Basic Indicators of Services 1960-1987 25 Basic Indicators of Communications 1940-1987 26
  21. Basic Indicators of Development of Health Services 1940-1987 26
  22. Basic Indices of Economic Development USSR and USA 1960-1987 27
  23. Comparisons of Output of Industrial and Agricultural Products 1987 28
  24. Comparisons of Output of Basic Industrial and Agricultural Products 1960-1987 30
  25. Comparisons of Indicators of Technological Development 1970-1987 31

II GOVERNMENT

  1. Chronology 33
  2. USSR Council of Ministers 37
  3. Governmental Personnel Changes 39
  4. Council of Ministers 39

III COMMUNIST PARTY

  1. Chronology 40
  2. Party News 41
  3. Party Personnel Changes 1989 41
  4. CPSU CC Politburo and Secretariat 44

IV INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

  1. Chronology 45
  2. USSR Foreign Ministry 51
  3. Representation in International Organizations 52
  4. Propaganda and Foreign Liaison Organizations 54
  5. Representation Abroad 56

V ARMED FORCES

  1. Chronology 70
  2. News 73
  3. Ministry of Defense 74
  4. Warsaw Pact Forces 76
  5. Theater/Regional Commands 77
  6. Military Academies 79
  7. DOSAAF 79
  8. Stavka of USSR Supreme High Command 1985 and 1989 79
  9. Major Equipment Delivered to LDCs 1980-1988 80
  10. Divisional Equipment and Personnel 80
  11. Military Theaters of Operation (TVDS) 81
  12. Status of IRBMs Subject to INF Treaty, 16 Jun 1989 83
  13. Status of SRBMs Subject to INF Treaty, 15 May 1989 83
  14. Weapons Production, 1982-1984 and 1986-1988 83
  15. ICBMs, USSR and US 84
  16. Intercontinental Strike Aircraft, USSR and US 84
  17. Nuclear SLBMS, USSR and US 85
  18. Long-Range Cruise Missiles, USSR and US 85
  19. Short and Shorter-Range Missiles 86
  20. Air Defense Interceptor Aircraft, USSR and North America 86
  21. Space Launch Vehicles, USSR and US 87
  22. Tactical Surface-to-Air Missiles, USSR and US 87
  23. Main Battle Tanks, USSR and US 88
  24. Selected Artillery, USSR and US 88
  25. Tactical Aircraft, USSR and US 89
  26. Military Transport Aircraft, USSR and US 89
  27. Nuclear-Powered Ballistic Missile Submarines, USSR and US 90
  28. Weight to Orbit, USSR and US 90
  29. Longer-Range Intermediate-Range Nuclear Missiles, USSR and NATO 91
  30. Operational Satellites in Orbit, USSR and US 1957-1988 91
  31. Space Launches, USSR and US 1957-1988 91
  32. Surface Ships, USSR and US 92
  33. Combat and Support Helicopters, USSR and US 94
  34. Strategic Surface-to-Air Missiles 94
  35. Attack Submarines 95
  36. Intercontinental-Capable Aircraft, USSR and US 97
  37. ICBM Launcher and Reentry Vehicle (RV) Deployment, USSR and US 1981-1989 98
  38. SLBM Launcher and RV Deployment, USSR and US 1981-1989 98
  39. Strategic Modernization, USSR and US 1960-1982 99
  40. Strategic Offensive Forces, US and USSR 100
  41. Production of Aircraft, Warsaw and NATO 1986-1989 100
  42. Missile Production. USSR and NATO 1986-1988 101
  43. Major Weapon Systems Production, NATO and Warsaw Pact 1979-1988 101
  44. Naval Ship Construction; Warsaw Pact and NATO 1986-1988 101
  45. Strategic Modernization USSR and US 1982-1989 102
  46. Comparison of Warsaw Pact and NATO Data on Military Forces in Europe 102
  47. Production of Ground Forces Materiel, Warsaw Pact and NATO 1986-1988 102
  48. Cost of General Purpose Forces USSR and US 1965-1988 103
  49. Warsaw Pact Cuts Announced 7 Dec 1988 104
  50. Strategic Offensive Warheads 1972-1988 105
  51. Relative USSR/US Technology Level in Deployed Military Systems 105
  52. Comparison of Technology Programs with Military Applications 106

VI POPULATION, HEALTH AND WELFARE

  1. Chronology 108
  2. News 108
  3. Population by Sex and Age 1 Jan 1987 109
  4. Male and Female Population 1913-1988 110
  5. Birth, Death and Natural Increase Rates, 1940-1987 110
  6. Population of Socialist Countries 1960-1988 111
  7. Population of Capitals of Union Republics and Cities with Population of Over 500 Thousand 1939-1988 112
  8. Comparisons of Birth, Death and Natural Increase Rates 1940-1987 113
  9. Urban and Rural Population 1913-1988 114
  10. Population by Social Class 1939-1987 114
  11. Average Life Expectancy 1896/97 1986 114
  12. Death Rate of Able-Bodied Population by Cause of Death 1970-1987 115
  13. Infant Mortality 1970-1987 115
  14. Population 12 Jan 1989 115
  15. USSR Academy of Medical Sciences 115
  16. Sales of Alcoholic Beverages and Tobacco Products 1960-1987 120
  17. Hospital and Ambulatory/Out-Patient Units Commissioned and Visited 1970-1987 120
  18. Comparisons of Consumption of Alcoholic Beverages Per Capita 1970-1986 120
  19. Comparisons of Number of Hospital Beds 121
  20. Comparisons of Number of Doctors 121
  21. Number of Days of Temporary Disability 1980-1987 122
  22. Average Monthly Wages and Salaries by Economic Sector 1940-1987 122
  23. Average Monthly Remuneration of Collective Farmers 1970-1987 123
  24. Allowances and Benefits from Social Consumption Funds 1940-1987 123
  25. Number of Pensioners 123
  26. Average Wages and Salaries Including Social Benefits 1987 124
  27. Growth of Real Income of the Population for 1976-1987 124
  28. Average Monthly Wages and Salaries Including Social Benefits 1940-1987 124
  29. Average Remuneration of Collective Farmers Including Social Benefits 1987 124
  30. Growth of Real Income 1940-1987 125
  31. End of Year Living Space 1980-1987 125
  32. Urban Housing Conveniences 1970-1987 125
  33. Flats Built and Persons Receiving Improved Living Conditions 1956-1987 126
  34. Consumption of Foodstuffs 1960-1987 126

VII ECONOMY

  1. Chronology of Economic Affairs 127
  2. Academy of the National Economy 130
  3. Comparisons of GNP and Population 1988 131
  4. Comparisons of Real Gross Product 1971-1988 132
  5. Deficit Goods 1989 132
  6. Profile of Socialist Economies 1988 133
  7. Comparisons of Growth of Real GNP 1961-1988 134
  8. Comparisons of Growth of Real GNP Per Capita 1961-1988 135
  9. GNP by End Use, US and USSR 1988 136
  10. Estimated Real GNP of Socialist Economies 1960-1988 136
  11. Comparisons of Consumer Price Index 1960-1988 137
  12. Comparisons of Labor Force 1960-1988 138
  13. Share of GNP by Sector of Origin 1960-1988 139
  14. Growth of GNP by Sector of Origin 1961-1988 139
  15. Growth of GNP at Factor Cost by End Use 1961-1968 140
  16. Distribution of GNP at Factor Cost, by End Use 1960-1988 140
  17. Aggregate Factor Productivity 1962-1988 141
  18. Growth of Consumption Per Capita 1961-1988 141
  19. Consumer Goods per Capita 1965-1988 142
  20. Economic Growth, USSR and US 142
  21. Growth of National Income Produced by Economic Sector 1980-1987 143
  22. Fixed Assets Commissioned and Investments 1976-1987 143
  23. State Investments for Productive Purposes 1980-1987 143
  24. Growth of Gross National Product 1980-1987 143
  25. National Wealth 1970-1987 144
  26. Renovation of Fixed Productive Assets 1970-1987 144
  27. Ratio of Fixed Productive Assets to Discards 1970-1987 144
  28. Distractions of Workers and Employees from Their Jobs 1985-1987 144
  29. Capital Productivity by Economic Sector 1971-1987 145
  30. Annual Average Growth Rates of Labor Productivity 1961-1987 145
  31. Increase in Production and Work as Result of Growth of Labor Productivity 1971-1987 145
  32. Ratio of Growth Rates of Wages and Salaries to Labor Productivity by Economic Sector 1981-1987 145
  33. Capital Productivity 1971-1987 146
  34. Construction Equipment 1940-1987 146
  35. Growth Rates of Fixed Productive Assets and Material Circulating Assets 1980-1987 146
  36. Multiple Shifts in Industry 1986-1987 146
  37. Students in Labor Force 1987 147
  38. Annual Average Rates of Decrease of Material Expenditures 1971-1987 147
  39. Growth Rates of Fixed Assets 1980-1987 147
  40. State Investments 1976-1987 148
  41. Growth Rates of Labor Productivity by Industry 1985-1987 148
  42. Labor Force in Goods and Services 1940-1987 149
  43. Volume of Services by Type 1987 149
  44. Labor Force by Economic Sector 1940-1987 150
  45. Amalgamations, Enterprises and Organizations Operating Under Full Serf-Supporting and Self-Financing by Economic Sector 1 January 1988 150
  46. Annual Average Number of Workers, Employees and Collective Farmers 1970-1987 151
  47. Labor Force by Economic Sector 1940-1987 151
  48. Workers Below Age 31 by Economic Sector 1 Jun 1987 152
  49. National Income Used for Consumption and Accumulation 1960-1987 152
  50. Use of National Income for Consumption and Accumulation 1970-1987 152
  51. Consumption of Goods and Services 1979-1985 153
  52. Rank in Volume of Industrial and Agricultural Output 1913-1987 153
  53. Comparisons of Average Annual Growth of National Income 1961-1987 154
  54. Retail Trade Turnover 1940-1987 154
  55. Sales of Foodstuffs 1960-1987 155
  56. Sales of General Merchandise and Household Appliances 1960-1987 155
  57. Sales of Consumer Goods 1980-1987 155
  58. Inventory of Consumer Durables 1960-1987 157
  59. Investments for Goods and Services 1965-1987 157
  60. Volume of Services 1985-1987 158
  61. Composition of Services 1987 158
  62. Social, Cultural, Scientific Spending 1985-1987 158
  63. Goskomstat Report on USSR's Social and Economic Development in 1989 158
  64. USSR Supreme Soviet Resolution on USSR's Economic and Social Development in 1990 172

VIII FINANCE

  1. Comparisons of Gold Production 1960-1988 176
  2. Gold Production and Reserves 1965-1978 176
  3. State Budget 1960-1987 177
  4. Savings Bank Deposits 1960-1987 177
  5. USSR Supreme Soviet Resolution on USSR State Budget for 1988 177
  6. Law on USSR State Budget for 1990 178

IX ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT

  1. Chronology 181
  2. Comparisons of Measures of Energy Efficiency 1975-1988 182
  3. Comparisons of Primary Energy Consumption 1960-1987 183
  4. Comparisons of Primary Energy Production 1960-1988 184
  5. Comparisons of Primary Energy Production by Type 1970-1988 185
  6. Comparisons of Crude Oil Production 1960-1988 186
  7. Comparisons of Natural Gas Production 1960-1988 187
  8. Comparisons of Hard Coal Production 1960-1988 188
  9. Comparisons of Brown Coal and Lignite Production 1960-1988 189
  10. Comparisons of Proved Reserves of Crude Oil, Natural Gas and Coal Yearend 1988 190
  11. Comparisons of Installed Electricity Generating Capacity 1960-1988 191
  12. Comparisons of Installed Nuclear Electricity Generating Capacity 1960-1988 192
  13. Comparisons of Electricity Production 1960-1988 193
  14. Comparisons of Crude Oil Production, Excluding Natural Gas Liquids 1989 194
  15. Soviet Oil Production 1987-1989 195
  16. Soviet Gas Production 1987-1989 195
  17. Oil and Natural Gas Production/Apparent Consumption 1975-Sep 1989 195
  18. Estimated Regional Production of Crude Oil 1976-1987 196
  19. Imports of Oil 1977-1988 196
  20. Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products 1979-1988 197
  21. Regional Production of Natural Gas 1977-1988 197
  22. Estimated Natural Gas Trade 1977-1988 198
  23. Use of Secondary Thermal Resources 1980-1989 198

X INDUSTRY

  1. Comparisons of Industrial Production Index 1960-1988 199
  2. Industrial Production Index for Socialist Countries 1960-1988 200
  3. Comparisons of Industrial Employment 1960-1988 201
  4. Industrial Factor Productivity 1962/65-1988 202
  5. Industrial Production by Branch of Industry 1962/65-1988 202
  6. Comparisons of Nonagricultural Labor Force 1960-1988 203
  7. Refined Nickel Production, USSR and PRC 1960-1988 204
  8. Smelter Production of Lead In Socialist Countries 1960-1988 204
  9. Tungsten Ore Production, USSR and PRC 1960-1988 204
  10. Refined Zinc Production in Socialist Countries 1960-1988 205
  11. Smelter Production of Primary Tin in Socialist Countries 1960-1988 205
  12. Chromite Production in Socialist Countries 1960-1988 205
  13. Caustic Soda Production in Socialist Countries 1960-1988 206
  14. Synthetic Ammonia Production in Socialist Countries 1960-1988 206
  15. Sulfuric Acid Production in Socialist Countries 1960-1988 207
  16. Nitrogen Fertilizer Production, Nutrient Content in Socialist Countries 1960-1988 207
  17. Phosphate Fertilizer Production, Nutrient Content in Socialist Countries 1960-1988 208
  18. Potassium Fertilizer Production, Nutrient Content in Socialist Countries 1960-1988 208
  19. Plastic Production in Socialist Countries 1960-1988 209
  20. Electric Generator Production in Socialist Countries 1960-1988 209
  21. Turbine Production in Socialist Countries 1960-1988 210
  22. Metal Cutting Machine Tool Production in Socialist Countries 1960-1988 210
  23. Manganese Ore Production in Socialist Countries 1960-1988 211
  24. Grain Combine Production in Socialist Countries 1960-1988 211
  25. Tractor Production in Socialist Countries 1960-1988 211
  26. Railroad Freight Car Production in Socialist Countries 1960-1988 212
  27. Newsprint Production in Socialist Countries 1960-1988 212
  28. Plywood Production in Socialist Countries 1960-1988 213
  29. Cement Production in Socialist Countries 1960-1988 213
  30. Comparisons of Iron Ore Production 1960-1988 214
  31. Comparisons of Bauxite Production 1960-1988 215
  32. Comparisons of Pig iron Production 1960-1988 216
  33. Comparisons of Crude Steel Production 1960-1988 217
  34. Comparisons of Rolled Steel Production 1960-1988 218
  35. Comparisons Refined Copper Production 1960-1988 219
  36. Comparisons of Primary Aluminum Production 1960-1988 220
  37. Comparisons of Cobalt Production 1960-1988 221
  38. Comparisons of Platinum Group Metals Production 1960:-1988 221
  39. Comparisons of Chemical Fertilizer Production, Nutrient Content 1960-1988 222
  40. Comparisons of Synthetic Rubber Production 1960-1988 223
  41. Comparisons of Synthetic Fibers Production 1960-1988 224
  42. Growth of Power and Electric Power Supply per Industrial Worker 1940-1987 225
  43. Use of Secondary Raw Materials 1981-1987 225
  44. Decrease of Secondary Cost in Industry and Construction 1976-1987 225
  45. Industrial Output 1980-1987 225
  46. Growth of Industrial Output of Some Territorial Production Complexes 1980-1987 226
  47. Growth of Industrial Output by Industry 1980-1987 226
  48. Fulfillment of Delivery Contracts by Production Complex 1987 226
  49. Growth of Industrial Output by Industry 1985-1987 227
  50. Growth of Labor Productivity by Industry 1980-1987 227
  51. Output of Basic Industrial Products 1940-1987 228
  52. Rejected Goods of Ministry of Light Industry 1980-1987 230
  53. Consumer Goods Repaired Under Warranty 1980-1987 231
  54. Commissioned Fixed Assets 1918-1987 231
  55. Productive Capacities Commissioned for Retooling Enterprises 1976/80-1986/87 231
  56. Productive Capacities Commissioned by New. Expanding and Retooling Enterprises 1976/80-1986/87 232
  57. Fixed Assets Commissioned by Complex 1976/80-1986/87 233
  58. State Investments in Construction 1961/65-1987 234
  59. Investments in Fixed Assets 1918/40-1987 234
  60. Housing Commissioned 1918/40-1987 234
  61. Construction and Installation 1918/40-1987 235
  62. Goods Manufactured for Sale to Consumers 1940-1987 236
  63. Growth of Sales of Consumer Goods 1960-1987 236
  64. Rural Housing Commissioned 1956/60-1987 237
  65. State Investments in Housing 1956/60-1987 237
  66. Growth of Power Supply per Construction Worker 1980-1987 238
  67. Metal Waste in Machine Building and Metal Working 1960-1987 238
  68. Commission of Urban and Rural Dwelling Built by Population and Housebuilding Cooperatives 1956/60-1987 238
  69. Comparisons of Crude Steel and Passenger Automobile Production 1960-1988 239

XI AGRICULTURE

  1. News 240
  2. V.I. Lenin Academy of Agricultural Sciences 240
  3. Comparisons of Agricultural Labor Force 1960-1988 242
  4. Potato Production in Socialist Countries 1960-1988 243
  5. Cattle in Socialist Countries 1960-1988 243
  6. Hogs in Socialist Countries 1960-1988 244
  7. Meat Production in Socialist Countries 1960-1988 245
  8. Milk Production in Socialist Countries 1960-1988 246
  9. Wool Production in Socialist Countries 1960-1988 247
  10. Ginned Cotton Production in Socialist Countries 1960-1988 247
  11. Chemical Fertilizer Consumption, Nutrient Content in Socialist Countries 1960-1987 248
  12. Nitrogen Fertilizer Consumption, Nutrient Content in Socialist Countries 1960-1987 249
  13. Phosphate Fertilizer Consumption, Nutrient Content in Socialist Countries 1960-1987 250
  14. Potassium Fertilizer Consumption, Nutrient Content in Socialist Countries 1960-1987 250
  15. Grain Yields in Socialist Countries 1960-1988 251
  16. Fish Catch in Socialist Countries 1960-1987 251
  17. Comparisons of Grain Production 1960-1988 252
  18. Comparisons of Wheat Production 1960-1988 253
  19. Comparisons of Coarse Grains Production 1960-1988 254
  20. Comparisons of Rice Production 1960-1988 255
  21. Comparisons of Sugar Production 1960-1988 256
  22. Comparisons of Soybean Production 1960-1988 257
  23. Power Capacities in Agriculture 1940-1987 258
  24. Consumption of Electricity in Agriculture 1940-1987 258
  25. Gross Agricultural Output, Fixed Productive Assets and Personnel by Branch Agroindustrial Complex 1987 258
  26. Power Supply Per Worker and Power Capacities in Agriculture 1940-1989 258
  27. Agricultural Output, Fixed Productive Assets and Personnel of Agroindustrial Complex 1970-1987 258
  28. Sowing Areas 1940-1987 259
  29. Food Production by Branch of Food Industry 1980-1987 259
  30. Growth of Annual Average Gross Agricultural Output 1976/80-1987 259
  31. Agricultural Output 1940-1987 260
  32. Output of Alcoholic Beverages and Tobacco Products 1970-1987 262
  33. Growth of Annual Average Gross Agricultural Output by Category Enterprises 1976-1987 262
  34. Meat Production 1940-1987 262
  35. Yield of Agricultural Crops 1940-1987 262
  36. Land Improvements 1976-1987 263
  37. Supply of Mineral Fertilizers to Agriculture 1940-1987 263
  38. Felling in State Forests 1980-1987 263
  39. Total Harvest and Yield of Grain Crops 1940-1987 264
  40. Afforestations, Protected-Hunting Farms and Nature and National Parks 1976-1987 264
  41. Productive Livestock 1941-1988 264
  42. Output of Livestock Products 1940-1987 265
  43. Annual Average Milk Yield Per Cow 1940-1987 265
  44. State Purchases of Agricultural Products 1940-1987 266
  45. Deliveries of Livestock Products by Individual Subsidiary Plots to Collective and State Farms 1985-1987 266
  46. Supply of Feed Chemical Additives to Agriculture 1970-1987 266
  47. State Purchases of Fruits, Berries, Grapes, Citruses and Crude Tea 1940-1987 267
  48. Crop Output on Irrigated and Drainage Lands 1970-1987 267
  49. Tractor, Grain Harvester and Truck Fleet in Agriculture 1940-1987 267
  50. Supply of Tractors, Trucks and Agricultural Machines to Agroindustrial Complex 1987 267
  51. Irrigated and Drainage Lands 1970-1987 268
  52. State Forest Regeneration 1970-1987 268
  53. Forest Protection 1980-1987 268

XII TRANSPORT

  1. News 269
  2. Comparisons of Passenger Automobile Production 1960-1988 269
  3. Comparisons of Truck and Bus Production 1960-1988 270
  4. Comparisons of Rubber Tire Production 1960-1988 271
  5. Comparisons of Railroad Freight 1960-1988 272
  6. Comparisons of Motor Vehicle Freight 1960-1988 274
  7. Ocean Freight of Socialist Countries 1960-1988 275
  8. Comparisons of Inland Water Freight 1960-1988 275
  9. Comparisons of Inland Water Freight 1960-1988 276
  10. Comparisons of Air Passengers 1960-1988 276
  11. Comparisons of Air Freight 1960-1988 277
  12. Civil Aircraft Inventory, US and USSR 1960-1988 277
  13. Comparisons of Petroleum Pipelines 1960-1988 278
  14. Comparisons of Petroleum Pipelines 1960-1988 278
  15. Comparisons of Fishing Fleet Inventory 1970-1988 279
  16. Merchant Fleet Inventory of Socialist Countries 1970-1988 280
  17. Tanker Fleet Inventory of Socialist Countries 1970-1988 281
  18. Volume of Shipping by Type of Transport 1940-1987 282
  19. Containerized and Packaged Shipping by Type of Transport 1970-1986 282
  20. Freight Traffic by Type of Transport 1940-1987 282
  21. Passenger Carried by Transport 1940-1987 283
  22. Train, Plane and Helicopter Schedule Completion 1980-1987 283
  23. Passenger Traffic by Type of Transport 283

XIII FOREIGN TRADE

  1. Chronology 284
  2. Business Information 287
  3. Moscow Addresses of US Companies Accredited in USSR 289
  4. Foreign Trade Associations 290
  5. Republic Foreign Trade Associations 301
  6. Comparisons of Net Imports as a Share of Consumption 1987 303
  7. Importance of Soviet Trade to Capitalist Countries 1980-1988 304
  8. Major Exporters of Oil 1970-1988 304
  9. Hard Currency Balance of Payments 1960-1988 305
  10. Comparisons of Market Share of Imports of Nonfuel Goods 1987 306
  11. Oil Revenues of Major Exporters 1975-1988 307
  12. Foreign Trade Exchange Rates of Socialist Currencies 1973-1988 308
  13. Hard Currency Debt to the West 1971-1988 308
  14. Foreign Trade 1960-1988 309
  15. Exports 1960-1987 310
  16. Imports 1960-1987 311
  17. Hard Currency Trade by Commodity 1970-1987 312
  18. Hard Currency Trade with Capitalist Countries 1987-1988 313
  19. East European Foreign Trade 1960-1988 314
  20. East European Exports by Country 1960-1988 315
  21. East European Imports by Country 1960-1988 316
  22. Foreign Trade of PRC 1965-1988 317
  23. Foreign Trade of Cuba 1965-1987 318
  24. Exports and Imports by Product 1950-1987 319
  25. Foreign Trade by Groups of Countries 1950-1987 319
  26. Foreign Trade by Groups of Countries 1950-1987 320
  27. Foreign Tourists by Area of Origin 1987 320
  28. Soviet Tourists by Area of Destination 1987 320
  29. US-USSR Trade 1980-1988 320
  30. Hong Kong Trade with USSR 1980-1988 321
  31. Hong Kong Exports to USSR 1980-1988 321
  32. Singapore Trade with USSR 1980-1988 321
  33. Japan Trade with USSR 1987-1989 322
  34. USSR/Japan Non-Salmon Fish Quotas 1979-1989 322

XIV FOREIGN AID

  1. Chronology 323
  2. Economic Aid Extended to LDCs by Warsaw Pact Members 1954-1988 324 Economic Aid to LDCs by Socialist
  3. Countries, Extensions and Drawings 1954-1988 325
  4. Arms Transfers to LDCs by Socialist Countries, Agreements and Deliveries 1954-1988 325
  5. Economic Aid Extended to LDCs 1954-1988 326
  6. Economic Aid Extended to Socialist Countries 1954-1987 327
  7. Economic Assistance to CUBA 1961-1987 327
  8. Academic, Technical and Military Trainees from LDCs in Socialist Countries 1979-1988 328
  9. Military Trainees from Capitalist LDCs in Socialist Countries 1988 328
  10. Economic and Military Technicians in LDCs from Socialist Countries 1988 329

XV SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND SPACE

  1. Chronology 331
  2. News 332
  3. USSR Academy of Sciences 332
  4. AROs and MAs Under USSR Council of Ministers 334
  5. Expenditures on Science 1970-1987 337
  6. Scientific Establishments 1940-1986 337
  7. Research Workers 1950-1987 338
  8. State Investments in Protection of Water and Air 1976-1987 338
  9. Measures for Protection of Water and Air 1976-1987 338
  10. Distribution of New Types of Machinery, Equipment, Apparatus, Instruments and Automation by Technological Level 1976-1986 338
  11. Output of Advanced Industrial Products 1980-1987 339
  12. Inventions and Innovations 1976-1987 340
  13. Discoveries Registered 1970-1987 340
  14. Development and Commission of New Types of Machinery 1976-1987 340
  15. Renovation of Engineering Output 1970-1987 340
  16. Marketable Products of Machine-Building Complex 1970-1986 341
  17. Scientific and Industrial Amalgamations in Industry 1973-1987 341
  18. Mechanization and Automation of Industrial Production 1971-1987 341
  19. Automatic Control Systems and Information Processing Systems 1976-1987 341

XVI LAW

  1. Chronology 342
  2. News 344
  3. USSR Supreme Soviet 345
  4. Secretariat of USSR Congress of People's Deputies 346
  5. Crime 1987-1988 347
  6. Felony Convictions 1985-1987 347

XVII CULTURE AND MEDIA

  1. Chronology 348
  2. News 352
  3. Cultural and Professional Organizations 353
  4. Religious Denominations 354
  5. Media 355
  6. Who's Who of Soviet Publishers 357
  7. Participation in Sports 1960-1987 367
  8. Sports Facilities 1960-1987 367
  9. Cinemas and Cinemagoers 1940-1987 368
  10. Museums and Theaters 1940-1987 368
  11. Public Libraries and Clubs 1940-1987 368
  12. Social and Cultural Projects Commissioned 1971/75-1987 369
  13. Social and Cultural Projects in Rural Areas Commissioned 1971/75-1987 369

XVIII EDUCATION

  1. News 370
  2. USSR Academy of Sciences 370
  3. Representatives in International Scientific Organizations 371
  4. Academy of Pedagogical Sciences 372
  5. State Universities 373
  6. Number of People with Higher or Secondary Education 1939-1987 377
  7. Educational Level of Population 1939-1987 378
  8. Pre-Schools 1970-1987 378
  9. Number of Students by Type of Education 1940/41-1987/88 376
  10. Educational Level of Population by Sex 1939-1987 379
  11. General Educational Schools 1940/41-1987/88 379
  12. Recipients of Secondary Education 1918-1987 380
  13. Graduates of Specialized Secondary Educational Schools 1949-1987 380
  14. Educational Level of Economically Active Population by Social Group 1939-1987 380
  15. Specialized Secondary Schools 1940/41-1987/88 380
  16. Educational Level of Manual and Mental Workers 1939-1987 381
  17. Graduates of General Educational Schools 1940-1987 381
  18. Higher Educational Institutions 1940/41-1987/88 381
  19. Graduates of Higher Educational Institutions 1940-1987 382
  20. Comparisons of Number of Students 382
  21. Educational Level of Economically Active Specialists 1941-1987 383
  22. Prolonged-Day Schools 1960/61 1987/88 383

IX NATIONALITIES

  1. Chronology 384
  2. News 388
  3. Union Republic Basic Data 388
  4. Growth of Industrial Output by Union Republic 1980-1987 396
  5. Growth of Industrial Labor Productivity by Union Republic 1980-1986 397
  6. Consumer Goods Production by Union Republic 1987 397
  7. Consumer Goods Production Per Capita by Union Republic 1987 398
  8. Gross Agricultural Output by Union Republic 1976-1987 398
  9. Growth of Food Output by Union Republic 1980-1987 399
  10. Volume of Retail Trade by Union Republic 1987 399
  11. Volume of Paid Services by Union Republic 1986-1987 400
  12. Collective Gardens and Orchards by Union Republic 1970-1986 400
  13. Volume of Services by Union Republic 1986-1987 401
  14. Cooperatives by Economic Activity and Cooperatives in Union Republic 1 Jan 1988 401
  15. Main Indicators of Cooperative Activities by Union Republic 1 Jan 1988 402
  16. Main Indicators of Cooperative Services by Union Republic 1 Jan 1988 402
  17. Main Indicators of Cooperatives Public Catering by Union Republic 1 Jan 1988 403
  18. Main Indicators of Cooperative Consumer Goods Production by Union Republic 1 Jan 1988 403
  19. Main Indicators of Cooperative Production of Confectionery and Baked Goods by Union Republic 1 Jan 1988 404
  20. Main Indicators of Cooperative Procurement and Processing of Secondary Raw Materials by Union Republic 1 Jan 1988 404
  21. Pupils and Students by Union Republic 404
  22. Doctors by Union Republics 1940-1987 405
  23. Territory and Population By Union Republic 1940-1988 405

XX SPECIAL TOPICS

  1. Obituaries 1989 407
  2. Chronological Summary of 1989 408
  3. Further Sources of Information 421
  4. Books of 1988 422
  5. Books of 1989 431

 

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