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Russia & Eurasia Facts & Figures Annual (REFFA)

(Formerly USSR Facts Figures Annual (UFFA))

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UFFA Volume 15 Contents

Edited by Alan P. Pollard

CONTENTS

ABBREVIATIONS OF TERMS xvii

ABBREVIATIONS OF SOURCES xviii

INTRODUCTION xix

I BASIC DATA

  1. Map 1
  2. Basic Information 2
  3. Key Economic Indicators 1986-1988 6
  4. Economic Profile 1989 7
  5. Production of Commodities US and USSR 1960-1989 8
  6. Basic Indices of Social and Economic Development 1980-1988 14
  7. Basic Indices of Social and Economic Development 1980-1988 14
  8. Basic Indices of Plan Fulfillment 1985-1988 15
  9. Basic Indicators of Services 1970-1988 16
  10. Basic Indicators of Development of Health Services 1970-1988 16
  11. Indicators of Technological Level of Production 1970-1988 17
  12. Basic Indicators of Industrial Development 1970-1988 19
  13. Basic Indices of Capital Construction in Branches of AIC 1976/80-1986/88 20
  14. Basic Indicators of Collective Farm Development 1970-1988 20
  15. Basic Indicators of State Farm Development 1970-1988 22
  16. Basic Indicators in Subsidiary Agricultural Farms of Enterprises, Organizations and Institutions 1986-1988 22
  17. Basic Indicators of Industrial Enterprises in AIC 1986-1987 23
  18. Basic Indicators of Agricultural Construction Organizations 1986-1988 23
  19. Basic Indicators of Communications 1970-1988 23
  20. Basic Indices of Capital Construction 1971/75-1986/88 24
  21. Basic Indicators Jan-Aug 1990 24
  22. Comparisons of Social Indicators 25
  23. Basic Indicators Jan-Aug 1990 as Percentage of 1989 25

II GOVERNMENT

  1. Chronology 26
  2. USSR Council of Ministers 31
  3. USSR Government Agencies 33
  4. USSR Presidency 1989-1990 38
  5. Civil Servants by Type of Agency 1970-1988 39

III COMMUNIST PARTY

  1. Chronology 40
  2. Central Committee Members Elected by XVIII CPSU Congress 42
  3. Central Control Commission Elected by XVIII CPSU Congress 43
  4. Commission for Preparation of Draft CPSU Program Set Up by XVIII CPSU Congress 43

IV INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

  1. Chronology 46
  2. Key US Foreign Service Officers in USSR 1990 57
  3. Gorbachev's US Summits 1985-1990 58

V ARMED FORCES

  1. Chronology 59
  2. Armed Forces News 61
  3. Defense Council Oct 1990 63
  4. Estimated Total Defense and Procurement Expenditures 1980-1989 63
  5. Soviet Armed Forces by Military Theater of Operation (TVD) 1990 63
  6. Status of Soviet and Warsaw Pact Forces in Eastern Europe Sep 1990 65
  7. Distribution of Defense Spending, USSR and US 1989-1990 66
  8. ICBMs, USSR and US Sep 1990 67
  9. Strike Aircraft, USSR and US Sep 1990 67
  10. CFE Treaty 68
  11. Military Production 1982-1989 69
  12. Production of Ground Forces Materiel, USSR and US 1987-1989 69
  13. Missile Production, USSR and US 1987-1989 69
  14. Aircraft Production, USSR and US 1987-1989 70
  15. Naval Ship Production, USSR and US 1987-1989 70
  16. Technological Capabilities, USSR and US Jul 1990 70
  17. 1989 Estimated Defense Expenditures as Percentage of 1988 71
  18. Nuclear-Powered Ballistic Missile Submarines, USSR and US Sep 1990 72
  19. Technological Capabilities, USSR and US Jul 1990 72
  20. Stavka of Supreme High Command Aug 1990 73
  21. Strategic Surface-to-Air Missiles Sep 1990 73
  22. Nuclear Submarine-Launched Ballistic Missiles, USSR and US Sep 1990 74
  23. Air Defense Interceptor Aircraft, USSR and North America Sep 1990 74
  24. Long-Range Cruise Missiles, USSR and US Sep 1990 75
  25. Strategic Modernization, USSR and US 1982-Sep 1990 75
  26. Selected Combat and Support Helicopters, USSR and US Sep 1990 76
  27. Space Launch Vehicles, USSR and US Sep 1990 77
  28. Tactical Surface-to Air Missiles, USSR and US 1982-Sep 1990 77
  29. Composition of Strategic Forces (Warheads), USSR and US Sep 1990 78
  30. Operational Satellites in Orbit, USSR and US 1957-5 Jul 1990 78
  31. Space Launches, USSR and US 1957-1 Jan 1990 78
  32. Strategic Offensive Forces, US and USSR July 1990 79
  33. ICBM Launcher and Rv Deployment,USSR and US Sep 1990 80
  34. SLBM Launcher and RV Deployment,USSR and US Sep 1990 80
  35. Strategic Modernization, USSR and US 1960-1982 81
  36. Territorial Air Defense, 1982-Sep1990 82
  37. Changes in Strategic Offensive War-heads 1972-Sep 1990 82
  38. Estimated Cost of General Purpose Forces, USSR and US 1965-Aug 1990 83
  39. Equipment and Personnel Holdings Aug 1990 83
  40. Main Battle Tanks, USSR and US Sep 1990 84
  41. Selected Tactical Aircraft, USSR and US Sep 1990 84
  42. Selected Artillery, USSR and US Sep 1990 85
  43. Military Transport Aircraft, USSR and US Sep 1990 85
  44. Surface Ships, USSR and US Sep 1990 86
  45. Surface Ships, USSR and US Sep1990 87
  46. Attack Submarines Sep 1990 88

VI POPULATION, HEALTH AND WELFARE

  1. Chronology 90
  2. Population, Urban and Rural, Male and Female 1959-1989 90
  3. CPE Population 1960-1989 91
  4. Population of Union Republics 1959-1989 92
  5. Birth, Death and Natural Incrase Rates 1970-1988 92
  6. Children Born to Unmarried Women 1980-1987 92
  7. Infant Mortality 1970-1988 92
  8. Life Expectancy 1971/72-1987 93
  9. Death Rates from Suicide by Sex and Age 1984-1987 93
  10. Indices of Births by Mothers' Marital Status 1945-1988 93
  11. Percentage of Illegitimate Birth, Urban and Rural 1950-1988 94
  12. Sales of Alcoholic Beverages and Tobacco Products 1960-1988 94
  13. Hospitals Commissioned 1980-1988 95
  14. Ambulatory and Outpatient Units 1980-1988 95
  15. Number of Days of Temporary Disability 1980-1988 95
  16. Rates of Alcohol and Drug Abuse 1980-1988 96
  17. Abortions 1980-1987 96
  18. Medical Personnel by Skill Level 1950-1987 96
  19. Average Monthly Wages and Annual Increases in Health Sector 1950-1987 97
  20. Estimated Wage Increases in Health Sector 1955-1987 97
  21. Wage Reforms for Health Personnel 1955-1987 98
  22. Medical Personnel by Skill Level 1950-1987 98
  23. Present and Adjusted Indexes of Employment in Health Sector 1950-1987 99
  24. Infant Mortality, Urban and Rural 1950-1986 100
  25. Age Distribution of Infant Deaths as Function of Infant Mortality Rate, by Republic 100
  26. Adjusted Index of Employment in Health Sector 1950-1987 101
  27. Average Monthly Wages and Salaries by Economic Sector 1970-1988 103
  28. Economically Active Population by Monthly Earnings 1956-1986 103
  29. Economically Active Population by Monthly Earnings 1976-1986 104
  30. Average Monthly Remuneration of Collective Farmers 1970-1988 104
  31. Value of Social Benefits 1970-1988 105
  32. Average Monthly Earnings Including Social Benefits 1970-1988 105
  33. Average Earnings Including Social Benefits 1970-1988 105
  34. Average Remuneration of Collective Farmers Including Social Benefits1988 105
  35. Annual Family Income From Individual Subsidiary Plots 1980-1988 105
  36. Number of Pensioners 1970-1988 106
  37. Average Monthly Pension 1980-1988 106
  38. Distribution of Pensioners by Size of Pension 1983-1987 106
  39. Average Annual Gross Income Per Capita 1970-1988 106
  40. Annual Per Capita Consumption of Foodstuffs 1970-1988 107
  41. Families' Dissatisfaction with Services 1987 107
  42. Opinions of Services in Workplace1987 107
  43. Flats Built and Average Floor Space 1971/75-1988 108
  44. Persons Receiving Improved Living Conditions 1971/75-1988 108
  45. Living Space 1980-1988 109
  46. Housing Conveniences 1970-1988 109
  47. Aged Disabled Persons for Whom Boarding Houses Commissioned 1971/75-1988 110
  48. Increases in Minimum Wage 1950-1987 110
  49. State's Funding Share of New Urban Housing Units by Quality Characteristics 1970-1987 110
  50. Rural Housing Amenities 1980 111
  51. State's Funding Share of Amenitiesin New Housing 1975-1987 111
  52. Alternative Indexes of Housing Stock 1970-1987 111
  53. Amenities in State Rural and Urban Housing 1975 112
  54. Population of the Union Republics1979-1989 112
  55. Urban-Rural Distributions of Population 1959-1989 112

VII ECONOMY

  1. Chronology 113
  2. GNP Growth 1980-1988 117
  3. Average Annual GNP Growth 1966/70-1986/88 118
  4. Consumption and Accumulation of National Income 1970-1988 118
  5. Labor Force by Economic Sector 1970-1988 118
  6. National Income Growth 1980-1988 119
  7. Average Annual National Income Growth 1966/70-1986/88 119
  8. Growth of Net Material Output 1980-1988 120
  9. Annual Average Growth of Net Material Output 1966/70-1986/88 120
  10. National Wealth 1980-1988 121
  11. Annual Average Number of Workers and Employees by Branch of Economy 1970-1988 121
  12. Labor Force in Goods and Services 1970-1988 122
  13. Annual Average Number of Workers, Employees and Collective Farmers 1970-1988 123
  14. Annual Average Growth Rates of Labor Productivity 1976/80-1986/88 123
  15. Sales of Consumer Goods 1980-1988 124
  16. Retail Trade Turnover 1970-1988 125
  17. Sales of Foodstuffs 1970-1988 125
  18. Sales of General Merchandise and Household Appliances 1970-1988 126
  19. Inventory of Consumer Durables 1970-1988 126
  20. Construction Materials and Fuel Available to Consumers 1970-1988 127
  21. Average Price Indexes of Selected Consumer Goods 1980-1988 127
  22. Volume of Services 1985-1988 128
  23. Composition Services 1988 128
  24. Volume of Services by Type 1988 128
  25. Annual Average Rates of Decrease in Capital Productivity of the National Economy 1971/75-1988 129
  26. Enterprises Using Lease Contracts and Persons Engaged in Them by Economic Sector Oct 1988 129
  27. Managers Elected by Labor Collectives of State Enterprises 130
  28. Growth in Personal Money Income and Real Consumption 1981/85-1989 131
  29. CIA and Soviet Estimates of Soviet Retail Price Change 1981-1989 131
  30. Annual Growth of Per Capita GNP 1981/85-1989 132
  31. Comparative Indexes of Per Capita GNP and Consumption 1985 132
  32. Comparisons of Annual Growth Rates of Real GDP 1970-2010 133
  33. Estimated GNP by Sector of Origin at Factor Cost 1970-1989 133
  34. Estimated Value Added in Industry at Factor Cost 1970-1989 134
  35. Estimated Average Annual Growth of Per Capita Consumption 1956/60-1989 134
  36. Estimated Average Annual Growth of Per Capita Consumption 1956/60-1989 135
  37. Gross Fixed Capital Investment 1970-1989 135
  38. Estimated Growth of GNP, Industrial Production and Labor Productivity 1966/70-1989 136
  39. Rate of Return on Fixed and Working Capital for 12 Industries 1960-1987 136
  40. Capital Depreciation 1955-1987 136
  41. Profits as Percent of Fixed and Working Capital for 12 Industries 1960-1973 137
  42. Profits as Percent of Fixed and Working Capital for 12 Industries 1974-1987 137
  43. Shares of Health and Education Services in Unadjusted and Adjusted GNP 1950-1987 137
  44. Sector-of-Origin GNP Less Alternative End-Use Estimate 1960-1987 138
  45. Growth of GNP by Sector of Origin Less Growth by End Use 1960-1987 138
  46. Unadjusted and Adjusted Growth of Consumption, Health Consumption and Education Consumption Per Capita 1951/55-1987 139
  47. Estimated TFP Growth in Nonfarm, Nonservice Sectors 1962-1987 139
  48. Adjusted TFP Growth Rates in Non-farm, Nonservice Sectors 1962-1987 140
  49. Estimated TFP Growth in Agriculture 1969-1987 140
  50. Adjusted TFP Growth in Agriculture 1969-1987 141
  51. Estimated TFP Growth in Industry 1962-1987 141
  52. Estimated TFP Growth in Construction 1962-1987 142
  53. Estimated TFP Growth in Transport and Communications 1962-1987 142
  54. Estimated TFP Growth in Trade and Other Productive Sectors 1962-1987 143
  55. Adjusted TFP Growth Rates in Non-farm, Nonservice Sectors 1962-1987 144
  56. Composition of CIA Constant-Price Construction Index 1982-1987 144
  57. Change-in-Capital Shares Minus Commissioning Shares 1976-1987 145
  58. Gross Fixed Capital by Sector 1960-1987 145
  59. Changes in Gross Fixed Capital by Sector 1961-1987 146
  60. Activation of Fixed Capital in Total Economy 1960-1987 147
  61. Estimated Annual Additions to Capital Stock 1961-1987 148
  62. Ratio of Commissionings to Beginning-of-Year Capital Stock 1961-1987 149
  63. Estimated Annual Retirements from Capital Stock 1961-1987 150
  64. Ratio of Retirements to Beginning-of-Year Capital Stock 1961-1987 151
  65. DCS for Industry 1960-1987 152
  66. DCS for Agriculture 1960-1987 153
  67. DCS for Transport and Communications 1960-1987 154
  68. DCS for Construction 1960-1987 155
  69. DCS for Trade and Other Productive Sectors 1960-1987 156
  70. DCS for Housing 1960-1987 157
  71. DCS for Nonproductive Sectors Excluding Housing 1960-1987 158
  72. DCS for Total Economy 1960-1987 159
  73. Output Data for Nonfarm, Nonservice Sectors 1960-1987 160
  74. Employment Data for Nonfarm, Nonservice Sectors 1960-1987 161
  75. Goskomstat-Calculated GNP in Current Prices 1987-1988 162
  76. Goskomstat-Calculated Growth Rates in Constant Prices 1985-1988 162
  77. CIA-Estimated GNP in Constant Prices 1985-1988 162
  78. Alternative Soviet Measures of Economic Growth 1966-1985 162
  79. CIA and Official Soviet Measures of Economic Growth 1951/60-1988 162
  80. CIA and Official Soviet Measures of Industrial Production 1951/60-1981/87 163
  81. Ratio of CIA Estimates to Soviet Official Growth Rates by Industry 1981-1987 163
  82. Food Prices at Urban Farm Markets Jan-Aug 1990 163
  83. Indices of Meat and Produce Prices at Farm Markets of 264 Cities Jan-Aug 1990 163
  84. Performance of Economic Complexes Jan-Aug 1990 164
  85. Growth in Volume of Production of Economic Complexes Jan-Aug 1990 164
  86. Food Prices in Farm Markets of Six Cities December 1990 164
  87. Shares of World GNP and Population 1989 165
  88. Average Annual Growth of Real GDP, Big Seven and USSR 1971-1989 166
  89. Estimated Real GNP of CPEs 1960-1989 167
  90. GNP by End Use, USSR and US 1988-1989 167
  91. Growth of Real GNP of CPEs 1961/70-1989 168
  92. Growth of Real GNP Per Capita of CPEs 1961/70-1989 168
  93. Growth of GNP by Sector of Origin 1961/65-1989 169
  94. Labor Force of CPEs 1960-1989 169
  95. Nonagricultural Labor Force of CPEs 1960-1989 170
  96. Share of GNP by Sector of Origin 1960-1989 170
  97. Growth of GNP at Factor Cost by End Use 1961/65-1989 171
  98. Distribution of GNP at Factor Cost by End Use 1960-1989 171
  99. Aggregate Factor Productivity 1962/65-1989 172
  100. Growth of Per Capita Consumption 1961/65-1989 172
  101. Selected Consumer Goods Per Capita 1965-1989 173
  102. Comparisons of Cost of Basic TV Set per Wage-Hour of Typical Worker 173
  103. Output and Expenditure 1976/80-1990 174
  104. Annual Growth of Incomes and Prices 1986-1990 174
  105. Comparisons of Employment in Agriculture and Industry 1989 175
  106. The USSR Economy in 1990. Report of the USSR State Committee for Statistics 175
  107. 1990 USSR Agro-Industrial Performance Assessment 195

VIII FINANCE

  1. Reorganization of Banking 1987 197
  2. State Budget 1970-1988 198
  3. Money Supply 1970-1988 199
  4. Savings Bank Deposits 1970-1988 199
  5. Family Savings by Purpose 1987 199
  6. Estimated State Budget Deficit 1985-1989 200
  7. Gold Production and Reserves 1965-1989 200
  8. State Budget 1985-1990 200
  9. Annual Average Growth of Money and Credit 1981/85-1990 201
  10. USSR Law on the Union Budget for 1991 201

IX ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT

  1. Chronology 204
  2. Reorganization of Energy Agencies 1989 205
  3. State Investment in Protection and Efficient Utilization of Natural Resources 1976/80-1988 207
  4. Anti-Pollution Facilities Commissioned 1976/80-1988 207
  5. Growth of Power Supply 1980-1988 207
  6. Use of Secondary Energy Resources 1980-1988 207
  7. Estimated Primary Energy Balance 1985 208
  8. Energy Production by Type 1970-1988 208
  9. Hard Currency Energy Export Earnings by Source 1970-1988 209
  10. Total Energy Consumption 1970-1988 209
  11. Trends in Overall Energy Efficiency 1970-1988 210
  12. Energy Investment 1970-1988 211
  13. Major Oil Regions 212
  14. Oil Balance 213
  15. Oil Production and Trade 1970-1989 213
  16. Major Gas Regions and Selected Gasfields 214
  17. Natural Gas Production and Trade 1970-1989 215
  18. Coal Production and Trade 1970-1989 215
  19. Coal Production by Type of Coal and Mining 1970-1988 215
  20. Major Coal-Producing Basins 216
  21. Major Electric Power Plants 217
  22. Comparative Energy Statistics, US and USSR 1987 218
  23. Electricity Production by Source 1970-1989 218
  24. Electricity Consumption by Activity 1970-1988 219
  25. Comparisons of Sulfur Dioxide and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions 1988 219
  26. World Crude Oil Reserves 1 January 1989 220
  27. World Natural Gas Reserves 1 January 1989 221
  28. World Coal Reserves 1 January 1989 221
  29. CPE Regional Net Exports of Petroleum 1985-2010 221
  30. CPE Regional Net Exports of Natural Gas 1985-2010 222
  31. CPE Regional Energy Consumption 1980-2010 222
  32. CPE Regional Energy/GDP Ratio 1980-2010 222
  33. CPE Oil Production and Consumption 1980-2010 223
  34. CPE Oil Consumption 1987-2010 223
  35. CPE Energy Consumption by Type 1987-2010 223
  36. CPE Energy Consumption by Region 1987-2010 224
  37. CPE Natural Gas Consumption 1987-2010 224
  38. CPE Coal Consumption 1987-2010 224
  39. CPE Nuclear Energy Consumption 1987-2010 224
  40. CPE Other Energy Consumption 1987-2010 225
  41. Fuel and Energy Complex January-August 1990 225
  42. Fuel and Energy Complex January-August 1990 225
  43. CPE Crude Oil Production, Excluding NGL 1988-July 1990 225
  44. CPE NGL Production 1973-1987 226
  45. Oil (Including NGL) and Natural Gas Production/Apparent Consumption 1975-Dec 1989 226
  46. Estimated Natural Gas Trade 1977-1988 227
  47. Imports of Oil 1977-1989 227
  48. Estimated Regional Production of Crude Oil Including NGL 1976-1988 228
  49. Regional Production of Natural Gas 1977-1988 228
  50. Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products 1979-1989 229
  51. Comparisons of Measures of Energy Efficiency 1973-1989 230
  52. CPE Crude Oil Refining Capacity 1 January 1990 230
  53. CPE Proved Reserves of Crude Oil, Natural Gas and Coal, Yearend 1989 230
  54. CPE Primary Energy Consumption 1960-1988 231
  55. CPE Primary Energy Production 1960-1989 231
  56. CPE Primary Energy Production by Type 1970-1989 232
  57. CPE Crude Oil Production 1960-1989 232
  58. CPE Gross Natural Gas Production 1960-1989 233
  59. CPE Hard Coal Production 1960-1989 233
  60. CPE Net Brown Coal and Lignite Production 1960-1989 234
  61. CPE Installed Electricity Generating Capacity 1960-1989 234
  62. CPE Gross Installed Nuclear Electricity Generating Capacity 1960-1989 235
  63. CPE Gross Electricity Production 1960-1989 235
  64. Oil Production 1985-1990 236
  65. Gas Production 1985-1990 236
  66. Energy Prices 1990-1991 237
  67. Oil Investment and Production 1970-1987 237

X INDUSTRY

  1. Consumer Goods Production 1970-1988 238
  2. Output of Selected Industrial Products 1980-1988 239
  3. Output of Basic Industrial Products 1970-1988 240
  4. Productive Capacities Commissioned by New, Expanding and Retooling Existing Enterprises 1976/80-1986/88 242
  5. Consumer Goods Repaired Under Warranty 1980-1988 243
  6. State Investments in Housing 1971/75-1988 243
  7. Rejected Goods of Ministry of Light Industry 1980-1988 244
  8. Housing Commissioned 1971/75-1988 244
  9. Rural Housing Commissioned 1971/75-1988 244
  10. Public Facilities Commissioned 1971/75-1988 245
  11. Floor-Space and Flats Commissioned 1971/75-1988 245
  12. Age of Industrial Equipment 1970-1987 245
  13. Commissioned Fixed Assets 1971/75-1988 246
  14. Fixed Assets Commissioned by Complex 1976/80-1988 246
  15. Productive Capacities Commissioned for Retooling Enterprises 1976/80-1986/88 247
  16. Investments in Fixed Assets 1971/75-1988 247
  17. State Investments in Some Industrial Complexes 1976/80-1986/88 248
  18. Construction and Installation 1971/75-1987 248
  19. Investments in Goods and Services 1971/75-1988 248
  20. State Investments in Construction 1971/75-1988 249
  21. Construction Costs of State Urban Housing 1970-1987 249
  22. Derivation of Constant Price Seriesfor Machinery and Equipment Component of Investment 1960-1987 250
  23. Estimated Inflation in Machinery and Equipment Component of Investment 1960-1987 250
  24. Investment Price Indexes for Machinery and Construction 1960-1987 251
  25. Comparison of Inflation Estimates for Machinery and Construction 1961/65-1987/87 251
  26. Estimated Inflation in Construction and "Other" Component of Investment 1960-1987 252
  27. Deflation of Estimated Capital Stock in Industry and Construction 1960-1987 252
  28. Comparisons of Crude Steel and Passenger Automobile Production 1960-1988 255
  29. CPE Industrial Production Indexes, Official and Adjusted 1960-1989 256
  30. Industrial Factor Productivity 1962/65-1989 257
  31. CIA Estimates of Industrial Production by Branch of Industry 1961/65-1989 257
  32. Tungsten Ore Production, USSR and PRC 1960-1989 258
  33. CPE Chromite Production 1960-1989 258
  34. CPE Manganese Ore Production 1960-1989 258
  35. CPE Refined Zinc Production 1969-1989 259
  36. CPE Smelter Production of Primary Tin 1960-1989 259
  37. Refined Nickel Production, USSR and Cuba 1960-1989 259
  38. CPE Caustic Soda Production 1960-1989 260
  39. CPE Synthetic Ammonia Production 1960-1989 260
  40. CPE Sulfuric Acid Production 1960-1989 261
  41. CPE Nitrogen Fertilizer Production, Nutrient Content 1960-1980 261
  42. CPE Phosphate Fertilizer Production, Nutrient Content 1960-1989 262
  43. CPE Potassium Fertilizer Production 1970-1989 262
  44. CPE Plastic Production 1960-1989 263
  45. CPE Electric Generator Production 1960-1989 263
  46. CPE Turbine Production 1960-1989 264
  47. CPE Metalcutting Machine Tool Production 1960-1989 264
  48. CPE Grain Combine Production 1960-1989 265
  49. CPE Tractor Production 1960-1989 265
  50. CPE Railroad Freight Car Production 1960-1989 266
  51. CPE Newsprint Production 1960-1989 266
  52. CPE Plywood Production 1960-1989 267
  53. CPE Cement Production 1960-1989 267
  54. CPE Industrial Employment 1960-1989 268
  55. CPE Smelter Production of Lead 1960-1989 268
  56. CPE Iron Ore Production 1960-1989 269
  57. CPE Bauxite Production 1960-1989 269
  58. CPE Pig Iron Production 1960-1989 270
  59. CPE Crude Steel Production 1960-1989 270
  60. CPE Rolled Steel Production 1960-1989 271
  61. Comparisons of Platinum-Group Metals Production 1960-1989 271
  62. CPE Refined Copper Production 1960-1989 272
  63. CPE Primary Aluminum Production 1960-1989 272
  64. CPE Cobalt Production 1960-1989 273
  65. CPE Chemical Fertilizer Production, Nutrient Content 1960-1989 273
  66. CPE Synthetic Rubber Production 1960-1989 274
  67. CPE Synthetic Fibers Production 1960-1989 274

XI AGRICULTURE

  1. Output of Basic Foodstuffs 1970-1988 275
  2. Output of Alcoholic Beverages and Tobacco Products 1970-1988 275
  3. Foodstuffs Rejected 1988 276
  4. Agricultural Output, Fixed Productive Assets and Personnel of AIC 1970-1988 276
  5. Volume of Output of AIC 1970-1988 276
  6. Volume of Aic Output by Branch1988 277
  7. Agricultural Output, Fixed Productive Assets and Personnel by Branch of AIC 1988 277
  8. Supply of Tractors, Trucks and Agricultural Machines to AIC 1987-1988 277
  9. Tractor, Grain Harvester and Truck Fleet in Agriculture 1970-1988 278
  10. Supply of Mineral Fertilizers to Agriculture 1970-1988 278
  11. Meat Production 1970-1988 278
  12. Cattle and Poultry Productivity 1981/85-1988 279
  13. Supply of Feed Chemical Additives to Agriculture 1970-1988 279
  14. Power Supply in Agriculture 1970-1988 279
  15. Power Capacities in Agriculture 1970-1988 279
  16. Consumption of Electricity in Agriculture 1970-1988 279
  17. Agricultural Output 1980-1988 280
  18. Growth Rates of Food Production by Branch of Food Industry 1980-1988 280
  19. Sowing Areas 1970-1988 280
  20. Total Harvest, Yields and State Purchases of Agricultural Produce 1970-1988 281
  21. Total Harvest and Yield of Some Grain Crops 1970-1986 282
  22. State Purchases of Fruits, Berries, Grapes, Citruses and Crude Tea 1970-1988 282
  23. Land Improvements 1976/80-1988 283
  24. Irrigated and Drainage Lands 1970-1988 283
  25. Crop Output on Irrigated and Drainage Lands 1970-1988 283
  26. Productive Livestock 1971-1989 283
  27. Output and State Purchases of Livestock Products 1970-1988 284
  28. Agroindustrial Organizations as of 1 Jan 1989 284
  29. Output of Agricultural Products on Individual Subsidiary Plots 1980-1988 285
  30. State Forest Regeneration 1970-1988 285
  31. Forest Protection 1980-1988 285
  32. Selected Indicators of Agricultural Output 1970-1989 286
  33. CPE Agricultural Production Index 1965-1989 286
  34. CPE Agricultural Labor Force 1960-1989 287
  35. CPE Potato Production 1960-1989 287
  36. CPE Cattle 1960-1989 288
  37. CPE Hogs 1960-1989 288
  38. CPE Meat Production 1960-1989 289
  39. CPE Milk Production 1960-1989 289
  40. CPE Wool Production 1960-1989 290
  41. CPE Ginned Cotton Production 1960-1989 290
  42. CPE Chemical Fertilizer Consumption, Nutrient Content 1960-1988 291
  43. CPE Nitrogen Fertilizer Consumption, Nutrient Content 1960-1988 291
  44. CPE Phosphate Fertilizer Consumption, Nutrient Content 1960-1988 292
  45. CPE Potassium Fertilizer Consumption, Nutrient Content 1960-1988 292
  46. CPE Grain Yields 1960-1989 293
  47. CPE Soybean Production 1960-1989 293
  48. CPE Grain Production 1960-1989 294
  49. CPE Fish Catch 1960-1988 295
  50. CPE Wheat Production 1960-1989 295
  51. CPE Coarse Grains Production 1960-1989 296
  52. CPE Rice Production 1960-1989 296
  53. CPE Sugar Production 1960-1989 297
  54. Share of Labor Force in Agriculture 297

XII TRANSPORT

  1. Chronology 298
  2. Volume of Cargo Shipping by Type of Transport 1970-1988 299
  3. Containerized and Packaged Shipping By Type of Transport 1970-1988 299
  4. Freight Traffic By Type of Transport 1970-1988 299
  5. Passengers Carried by Type of Transport 1970-1988 300
  6. Passenger Traffic By Type of Transport 1970-1988 300
  7. Train, Plane and Helicopter Schedule Completion 1980-1988 300
  8. Transport Accidents 1970-1988 300
  9. Freight By Means of Transport Jan-Aug 1990 301
  10. Freight by Means of Transport Jan-Aug 1990 as Percentage of 1989 301
  11. CPE Passenger Automobile Production 1960-1989 302
  12. CPE Truck and Bus Production 1960-1989 302
  13. CPE RubberTire Production 1960-1989 303
  14. CPE Railroad Freight 1960-1989 303
  15. CPE Railroad Freight 1960-1989 304
  16. Air Freight, US and USSR 1960-1988 304
  17. Air Passengers, US and USSR 1960-1988 304
  18. CMEA Motor Vehicle Freight 1960-1988 305
  19. CMEA Motor Vehicle Freight 1960-1988 305
  20. CMEA Inland Water Freight 1960-1989 306
  21. CMEA Inland Water Freight 1960-1989 306
  22. CMEA Ocean Freight 1960-1989 307
  23. CMEA Petroleum Pipelines 1960-1989 307
  24. CMEA Petroleum Pipelines 1960-1989 308

XIII FOREIGN TRADE

  1. Foreign Trade and Aid Chronology 309
  2. Foreign Trade News 316
  3. Foreign Trade by Groups of Countries 1970-1988 317
  4. Joint Ventures with Socialist and Capitalist Countries 1 Jan 1989 317
  5. Exports and Imports 1970-1988 318
  6. Foreign Trade by Groups of Countries 1970-1988 318
  7. Foreign Tourists by Country of Origin and Soviet Tourists by Country of Destination 1988 319
  8. Exports and Imports by Region 1981-1989 319
  9. Estimated Hard Currency Debt to West 1975-1989 320
  10. Estimated Hard Currency Balance of Payments 1975-1989 321
  11. Diminishing Economic Benefits to Eastern Europe of Trade with USSR 1978-1989 322
  12. Comparisons of Net Imports of as a Share of Consumption 1988 323
  13. US Exports to USSR 1970-1988 324
  14. US Imports from USSR 1970-1988 332
  15. Production-Basis GNP and Command-Basis GNP in Established Prices 1950-1987 340
  16. Production-Basis GNP and Command-Basis GNP at Factor Cost 1970-1987
  17. Soviet Indexes of Volume of Foreign Trade and Combined Indexes for CMEA and Non-CMEA Trade 1960-1987 340
  18. Indexes of Soviet Machinery Imports in Constant Prices 1975-1987 by CIA and Hanson 341
  19. Estimated Machinery Imports from European CMEA Members and Selected Non-CMEA Countries in Constant Prices 1960-1987 342
  20. Balance of Payments 1986-1990 342
  21. Estimated Hard Currency Balance of Payments 1960-1989 343
  22. Estimated Hard Currency Debt to West 1971-1989 343
  23. Major Oil Exporters 1970-1989 344
  24. Oil Revenues of Major Exporters 1975-1989 344
  25. Importance of Soviet Trade to Non-CPEs 1980-1989 345
  26. Comparisons of Market Share of Imports of Nonfuel Goods 1987 346
  27. CPE Foreign Trade Exchange Rates 1973-1989 347
  28. Foreign Trade 1960-1989 348
  29. Exports 1960-1989 349
  30. Imports 1960-1989 350
  31. Hard Currency Trade by Commodity 1970-1989 351
  32. Hard Currency Trade with Non-CPEs 1988-1989 352
  33. East European Foreign Trade 1960-1988 353
  34. East European Exports by Country 1960-1989 354
  35. East European Imports by Country 1960-1989 355
  36. PRC Foreign Tarde 1983-1989 356
  37. Cuban Foreign Trade 1965-1988 357
  38. External Trade 1986-1980 358
  39. External Debt and Reserves 1985-1990 358
  40. Balance of Payment Scenarios for 1991 358
  41. Net Oil Exports 1986-1990 359
  42. Net Gas Exports 1986-1990 359
  43. CPE and LDC Indebtedness toUSSR 1 Nov 1989 359

XIV FOREIGN AID

  1. Economic Aid Extended to LDCs by Warsaw Pact Members 1954-1989 360
  2. CPE Economic Aid to LDCs, Extensions and Drawings 1954/79-1989 361
  3. CPE Arms Transfers to LDCs, Agreements and Deliveries 1954/78-1989 361
  4. Economic Aid Extended to LDCs by Recipient 1954-1989 362
  5. Economic Aid Extended to Other CPEs 1954-1989 363
  6. Economic Assistance to Cuba 1961-1989 363
  7. East European Economic Aid Extended to LDCs by Recipient 1954-1989 364
  8. CPE Economic and Military Technicians in LDCs 1989 365
  9. Military Trainees from LDCs in CPEs 1989 366
  10. Academic, Technical and Military Trainees from LDCs in CPEs 1979-1989 367

XV SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND SPACE

  1. Chronology 368
  2. Advanced Industrial Equipment Commissioned 1985-1988 369
  3. Output of Advanced Machinery 1980-1988 369
  4. Development and Commission of New Types of Machinery 1976/80-1988 370
  5. Automatic Control Systems and Information Processing Systems 1976/80-1988 370
  6. New Types of Machinery, Equipment, Apparatus, Instruments and Automation by Technological Level 1976/80-1987 370
  7. New Products of Machine-Building Complex 1987-1988 371
  8. Marketable Products of Machine-Building Complex by Age 1970-1987 371
  9. Expenditures on Science 1970-1988 371
  10. Scientific Establishments 1970-1987 371
  11. Research Workers 1970-1988 372
  12. Research Workers by Age 1983-1988 372
  13. Discoveries Registered 1970-1988 373
  14. Inventions and Innovations 1976/80-1988 373
  15. Patents and Licenses 1970-1987 373
  16. Comparisons of Technological Capabilities 374
  17. Comparisons of Semiconductor Materials and Microelectronic Circuits 375
  18. Comparisons of Software Producibility 376
  19. Comparisons of Parallel ComputerArchitecture 377
  20. Comparisons of Machine Intelligence and Robotics 378
  21. Comparisons of Simulation and Modeling 379
  22. Comparisons of Photonics 380
  23. Comparisons of Passive Sensors 381
  24. Comparisons of Signal Processing 382
  25. Comparisons of Signature Control 383
  26. Comparisons of Weapon System Environment 384
  27. Comparisons of Data Fusion 385
  28. Comparisons of Computational Fluid Dynamics 386
  29. Comparisons of Air-Breathing Propulsion 387
  30. Comparisons of Pulsed Power 388
  31. Comparisons of Hypervelocity Projectiles 389
  32. Comparisons of High Energy Density Materials 390
  33. Comparisons of Composite Materials 391
  34. Comparisons of Superconductivity 392
  35. Comparisons of Biotechnology Materials and Processes 393
  36. Approximate Length of US Lead 394

XVI LAW

  1. Chronology 395
  2. USSR Supreme Soviet 399
  3. USSR Supreme Court 400
  4. USSR Procuracy 400
  5. Convictions by Crime 1985-1988 400
  6. Civil Cases by Type 1980-1989 401
  7. Reported Crimes by Type 1985-1988 401
  8. Distribution of Crimes of Type 1985-1988 401
  9. Homicides and Suicides 1980-1987 402
  10. Moscow's Organized Crime Brigades 402

XVII CULTURE AND MEDIA

  1. Chronology 403
  2. News 405
  3. Cinemas Commissioned 1971/75-1986/88 405
  4. Museums and Theaters 1970-1988 406
  5. Cinemas and Cinemagoers 1970-1988 406
  6. Public Libraries and Clubs 1970-1988 406

XVIII EDUCATION

  1. Chronology 407
  2. Economically Active Specialists Enrolled in Higher or Secondary Specialized Education 1970-1988 407
  3. Buildings Commissioned for Educational and Cultural Purposes 1980-1988 408
  4. Student Enrollment by Level of Education 1970/71-1988/89 408
  5. Graduates of General Educational Schools 1970-1988 409
  6. Recipients of Secondary Education 1971/75-1988 409
  7. General Educational Schools 1970/71-1988/90 409
  8. Pre-Schools 1985-1988 409
  9. Specialized Secondary School 1970/71-1988/89 410
  10. Graduates of Specialized Secondary Educational Schools by Specialty 1970-1988 410
  11. Higher Educational Institutions 1970/71-1988/89 410
  12. Graduates of Higher Educational Institutions by Specialty 1970-1988 411
  13. Educational Attainment of Population 10 Years and Over 1959-2000 411
  14. Educational Attainment of Potential New Entrants into Labor Force 1959-1986 411
  15. Soviet Educational System 412
  16. Annual Rates of Transition Out of General Educational 1970-1986 412
  17. Projected Population Age 10+ by Level of Educational Attainment 1986-2000 413
  18. Projected Population Age 10+ by Level of Educational Attainment 1986-2000 424
  19. Projected Population by Level of Educational Attainment 1986-2000 441
  20. Projected Population by Level of Educational Attainment 1986-2000 452
  21. Index of Educational Attainment of Teachers in General Education System 1950-1988 463
  22. Wage Reforms for Teachers 1964-1987 463
  23. Present and Adjusted Indexes of Employment in Education 1950-1987 463
  24. Average Monthly Wages and Annual Increases in Education Sector 1950-1987 465
  25. Institutes and Universities 465

XIX NATIONALITIES

  1. Chronology 467
  2. Union Republic Basic Data 478
  3. Chairmen of Union Republic Councils of Ministers 485
  4. Consumer Goods Production Per Capita by Union Republic 1988 486
  5. Volume of Retail Trade by Union Republic 1988 486
  6. Volume of Paid Services by Union Republic 1987-1988 486
  7. Volume of Services by Union Republic 1987-1988 487
  8. Pupils in Staggered Shifts at Day-Time General Educational Schools by Union Republic 1980/81-1988/89 487
  9. Students by Union Republic at Beginning of 1988/89 School Year 488
  10. Medical Personnel by Union Republic 1970-1988 488
  11. Hospital and Outpatient Services by Union Republic 1980-1988 489
  12. Industrial Accidents by Union Republic 1980-1988 489
  13. Cooperatives by Economic Activity and Union Republic 1 Jan 89 490
  14. Main Indicators of Cooperative Activities by Union Republic 1 Jan 89 491
  15. Main Indicators of Cooperative Consumer Goods Production by Union Republic 1 Jan 89 491
  16. Main Indicators of Cooperative Public Catering by Union Republic 1 Jan 89 492
  17. Main Indicators of Cooperative Services by Union Republic 1 Jan 89 492
  18. Main Indicators of Cooperative Procurement and Processing of Secondary Raw Materials by Union Republic 1 Jan 89 493
  19. Persons Engaged in Individual Labor Activity by Union Republic 1988 493
  20. Fulfillment of Contracted Deliveries by Union Republic 1988 494
  21. Agricultural Output by Union Republic 1976/80-1988 494
  22. Collective Gardens and Orchards by Union Republic 1970-1987 494
  23. Energy Production by Type and Union Republic 1987 495
  24. Union Republic Populations 1989 496
  25. Core and Periphery Populations 1959-1989 496
  26. Russian and Other Ethnic Composition of Population 1959-1989 497
  27. Estimated Change in Number of Women Ages 15-49 by Nationality 1979-1990 497
  28. Estimated Net Migration of Southern Republics 1979-1989 498
  29. Russian Population of Southern Republics 1979-1989 498
  30. Urban and Rural Population by Union Republic 1979-1989 498
  31. Estimated Net Migration of Western Republics 1979-1989 499
  32. Russian and Ukrainian Populations of Baltic Republics 1979-1989 499
  33. Nationalities by Union Republic 1989 499
  34. Change in Proportion of Russians to Titular Nationalities by Union Republic 1979-1989 502
  35. Total Fertility Rates of Titular Nationalities 1978/79-1983/84 502
  36. Natural Increase 1988 and Net Migration 1979-1989 by Union Republic 502
  37. Population Growth from Natural Increase and Immigration by Republic 1979-1989 503
  38. Population Growth by Republic 1979-1989 504
  39. Growth of Titular Nationalities 1979-1989 504
  40. Growth Rates of Titular Nationalities 1970-1989 505
  41. Distribution of Population, NMP and Budget Revenue by Union Republic 507
  42. Lithuania's Energy Supply 507

XX SPECIAL TOPICS

  1. Obituaries 1990 508
  2. Chronological Summary 1990 510
  3. Books of 1989 527
  4. Books of 1990 537
  5. Further Sources of Information 544

 

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