Imperial Russia

A Source Book, 1700-1917

Edited by Basil Dmytryshyn

Table of Contents

 

1. The Revolt and Punishment of the Streltsy in 1698:

  1. An Eye-witness Account 1
  2. The Chiefs of the Rebellion 7
  3. The First Execution, 10th October, 1698 8
  4. Second Execution, 13th October, 1698 10
  5. Third Execution, 17th October, 1698 10
  6. Fourth Execution, 21st October, 1698 10
  7. Fifth Execution, 23rd October, 1698 10
  8. Seventh Execution, 27th October, 1698 11
  9. Last Execution, 31st October, 1698 12

2. Reorganization of Russia by Peter the Great 13

  1. A Decree on a New Calendar, December 20, 1699 14
  2. Decrees on the Duties of the Senate 15
  3. Decrees on Compulsory Education of the Russian Nobility, January 12 and February 28, 1714 15
  4. A Decree on Primogeniture, March 23, 1714 16
  5. An Instruction to Russian Students Studying Navigation 18
  6. A Decree on the Right of Factories to Buy Villages, January 18, 1721 18
  7. Table of Ranks, January 24, 1722 19
  8. A Decree on the Founding of the Academy, January 28, 1724 21

3. The Problem of Imperial Succession: Peter I's Relations with His Son Alexei. 23

  1. Peter's Declaration to Alexei, October 11, 1715 24
  2. Alexei's Reply, October 27, 1715 26
  3. Peter's Declaration to Alexei, January 19, 1716 27
  4. Alexei's "Confession." June 22, 1718 28
  5. Official Condemnation of Alexei, June 24, 1718. 30

4. Obligations and Rights of Russian Parish Priests, 1721 34

  1. Obligations and Rights of Russian Orthodox Parish Priests, Established by Peter the Great, 1721 34

5. Pososhkov on Poverty and Wealth 42

6. Events Surrounding the Assumption of Power by Anna, 1730 49

7. Events Surrounding the Assumption of Power by Elizabeth, I 741 57

8. Lomonosov's Challenge of the "Normanist Theory," 1749 64

9, Peter III's Charter to the Nobility, February 18, 1762 69

10. Catherine II's Account of Her Accession to the Throne, 1762 73

  1. (From a Letter to Poniatowski, August 2, 1762) 73

11. The Nakaz, or Instruction, of Catherine II to the Legislative Commission of 1767-1768 79

  1. The Instructions to the Commissioners for Composing a New Code of Laws 79

12. Novikov's Thoughts on Catherine II and on Russia 94

  1. N. I. Novikov's Polemic with Catherine II, June 16, 1769 94
  2. N. I. Novikov's Perception of Russian Society, January 1770 96

13. The Russo-Polish Treaty on the First Partition of Poland, September 18, 1773 100

14. The Pugachev Rebellion 104

  1. Catherine II's Manifesto Against Pugachev, December 23,1773 104
  2. Pugachev's "Emancipation Decree," July 31, 1774 106

15. The Treaty of Kutchuk Kainardzhi, July 21,1774 107

16. Catherine II's Charter to the Nobility, April 21,1785 113

17. Russian Schools in the Eighteenth Century 117

  1. Rules Governing Public Elementary Schools in the Russian Empire, August 5, 1786 118
  2. Statistical Data on Russian Public Schools, 1782-1800 121

18. Radishchev's Journey from St. Petersburg to Moscow 122

  1. Gorodnya 127

19. Suvorov's Comments on Military Conduct and Leadership 135

  1. A. V. Suvorov's Letter to His Godson, A. Karachai, Concerning Military Conduct and Leadership, 1796 136

20. The Law of Succession of 1797 137

  1. Paul's Law on Imperial Succession, April 5, 1797 137

21. Conditions of Peasants in the Eighteenth Century 139

  1. Peter I's Decree Against Peasant Flights, April 5, 1707 139
  2. Anna's Decree Against Peasant Flights, May 6, 1736 140
  3. Catherine II's Decree on Deportation of Serfs to Hard Labor, January 17, 1765 141
  4. Paul's Decree on Reduction of Work Days for Serfs, April 5, 1797 141
  5. Newspaper Advertisements for the Sale of Serfs, 1797 142

22. Russian Explorations in the North Pacific in the EighteenthCentury 143

  1. A Statement from the Admiralty College to the Senate Concerning the
  2. Purpose of the Bering Expedition, October 16, 1732 143
  3. A Decree from the Senate Appointing Missionaries to Kamchatka to Convert the Kamchadal Natives to Orthodox Christianity, January 2, 1742 147
  4. A Decree from the Senate Sending an Infantry Colonel and Other Officers to Siberia to Investigate Abuses and Mistreatment of Natives by Russian Iasak Collectors, September 24, 1745 148
  5. A Memorandum from Count Aleksandr R. Vorontsov, and Count Aleksandr A. Bezborodko, Concerning Russia's Rights to the Islands and Coasts of North America, December 1786 149
  6. Secret Instructions from Lieutenant General Ivan V. Iakobii, Governor
  7. General of Siberia, to Agents of Grigorii I. Shelikhov, to Establish
  8. Russia's Claim to Newly Discovered Parts of Alaska, June 21, 1787 151

23. Czartoryski's Account of the Events Surrounding the Assassination of Paul, 1801 153

24. Karamzin's Thoughts on Patriotism and Book Publishing in Russia 165

  1. N.M. Karamzin's View On Love of One's Country and National Pride, 1802 166
  2. N.M. Karamzin's Comments on the Book Business in Russia, 1802 172

25. The Franco-Russian Arrangements at Tilsit, July 7, 18o7 175

  1. The Franco-Russian Treaty of Peace and Friendship, July 7, 1807 175
  2. Secret Articles, July 7, 1807 180
  3. The Franco-Russian Secret Defensive and Offensive Alliance, July 7, 1807 181

26. Speranskii's Proposed Brief Outline of State Organization, 1809 184

  1. Basic Components 184
  2. Organization of the [State] Council 185
  3. Main Components 185
  4. Organization of the State Duma 185
  5. Main Components 186
  6. Organization of the Senate 186
  7. Organization of the Ministries is?
  8. Main Components 187
  9. Organization of the Legislative Order in Gubernias 188
  10. Main Components 188
  11. Organization of the Executive Administration in Gubernias 189
  12. The Okrug Administration 189
  13. The Volost Administration 190

27. The War of 1812 190

  1. Alexander's Proclamation to the Nation, July 18,1812 191
  2. M. I. Kutuzov's Report to Alexander I Concerning the Evacuation of
  3. Moscow, September 16, 1812 192
  4. Alexander's Victory Proclamation to the Army, January 13, 1813 194
  5. Russian Losses (Human and Animal) in the War of 1812 194

28. Russo-Polish Relations, 1815­1835 195

  1. Polish Freedoms under the Constitution of 1815 196
  2. Polish Dethronement of Nicholas I, 1831 199
  3. A Statement by Nicholas I to Polish Representatives, October, 1835 200

29. The Question of Imperial Succession 201

  1. Constantine's Renunciation of His Right to the Throne, January 26, 1822 202
  2. Alexander I's Manifesto on the Succession, August 28, 1823 203
  3. Nicholas I's Manifesto Upon Ascending the Throne, December 24, 1825 204

30. The Decembrist Movement 207

  1. Statute of the Union of Welfare 207
  2. Rules of Conduct for the United Slavs, 1820's 213
  3. Project for a Constitution by Nikita M. Muraviev: Second Draft 214
  4. Excerpts from Pestel's Testimony 222
  5. A Manifesto of Prince Trubetskoi 226
  6. A. S. Pushkin's Poem, "To Siberia," Honoring the Decembrists, 1827 228
  7. A. I. Odoevskii's Response to A.S. Pushkin's Poem, 1827 229

31. Russian Treatment of Their Siberian Subjects 230

  1. Regulations Governing Natives of Siberia, July 22, 1822 230

32. Reactionary and Repressive Policies of Nicholas I 234

  1. Nicholas I's Manifesto on Peasant Unrest, May 12, 1826 234
  2. A memorandum to Emperor Nicholas I from Admiral A. S. Shishkov
  3. Concerning his Views on Censorship, December 12, 1826 235
  4. A Restriction on Educational Opportunities for Nonprivileged Members
  5. of Russian Society, August 1827 237

33. The Eastern Question, 1828-1833 238

  1. The Treaty of Adrianople September 14, 1829 239
  2. The Treaty of Unkiar Skelessi, July 8, 1833 243

34. Chaadaev's Comments on Russian History and Culture 245

  1. Peter Ia. Chaadaev's Critical Comments on Russian History and Culture, 1829 246

35, Belinskii's Letter to Gogol, July 15, 1847 252

36. Russo-Ukrainian Relations in the Nineteenth Century 261

  1. Statute and Rules of the Cyril-Methodius Society 261
  2. Appeals of the Society 263
  3. A Report to Nicholas I by Count A. F. Orlov, Chief of Gendarmes,
  4. Concerning the Activity of the Saints Cyril and Methodius Society, May 1848 264
  5. An Anonymous Appeal to the Citizens of Kiev to Rebel, 1848 266
  6. An Anonymous Appeal to Ukrainian Peasants to Rebel, 1862 267
  7. A Project for Official Restrictions Against Ukrainian Publications, 1875 268

37. Herzen's Commentaries on the Russian Scene, 1849-1855 271

  1. Herzen's Letter from Paris to His Friends in Moscow, March 1, 1849 272
  2. Herzen's Appeal to Russian Nobles, June 1853 277
  3. Herzen's Statement of Dedication to His Son Alexander of His Book
  4. From the Other Shore, January 1,1855 281
  5. Herzen's Letter to Emperor Alexander II, March 10, 1855 282

38. Aksakov's Defense of the Freedom of Expression 284

  1. K. S. Aksakov's Poem "Free Word," 1853 285

39. The Crimean War, 1853-1856 286

  1. Statistical Data on the Strength of Russia's Armed Forces on the Eve of the Crimean War, 1853 286
  2. An Inventory of Weapons Available to Russian Forces on January 1, 1853 287
  3. An Order by Vice-Admiral V. A. Kornilov Calling for the Sinking of Russian Naval Vessels in Order to Defend Sevastopol, September 11,1854 288
  4. Peace Treaty of Paris, March 30, 1856 288
  5. Convention Between Russia and Turkey, Limiting Their Naval Forces in the Black Sea, Paris, March 30, 1856 293
  6. Convention Respecting the Straits of the Dardanelles and of the Bosphorus, March 30, 1856 293

40. The Franco-Russian Treaty of Neutrality and Cooperation, March 3, 1859 294

41. The Russo-Chinese Treaties, 1858­1860 296

  1. The Treaty of Aigun, May 28, 1858 296
  2. The Treaty of Tientsin, June 3, 1858 297
  3. The Treaty of Peking, November 14, 1860 301

42. Russian Serfs and Their Emancipation in 1861 304

  1. Census Data on the Number of Russian Nobles and Serfs, 1835 and 1858 305
  2. The Distribution of Obrok and Barshchina Serfs in Selected Gubernias in 1858 306
  3. The Emancipation Manifesto, March 3, 1861 307

43. Katkov's Views on the Polish Situation, 1863 312

44. Dobroliubov's Definition of "Oblomovism'" 321

  1. N. Dobroliubov's Definition of "Oblomovism' 322

45. Russian Colonial Aspirations in the Pacific Rim, 1798-1867 325

  1. An Imperial Decree From Emperor Paul I Granting Special Privileges to the Russian American Company for a Period of Twenty Years, December 27,1799 326
  2. A Statement from Directors of the Russian American Company Regarding Problems Caused by the Incursion of Bostonians Into Waters and Territories Claimed by Russia, April 21, 1808 328
  3. A Report from the Main Administration of the Russian American to the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Karl V Nesselrode,
  4. Concerning the Hawaiian Islands, August 17, 1817 332
  5. The Views of Count Nikolai N. Muravev Regarding the Necessity for Russia to Control the Amur River, 1849-1850 334

46. The Russo-German Alliance System, 1863-1890 336

  1. The Alvensleben Convention, February 8, 1863 337
  2. Secret Article 337
  3. The Military Convention, May 6, 1873 337
  4. An Appendix to the Military Convention 338
  5. The Convention of Schönbrunn, June 6, 1873 338
  6. The Convention Between Austria-Hungary, The German Empire, and Russia, Berlin, June 18, 1881 339
  7. The Convention of Berlin, Among Austria-Hungary, the German Empire, and Russia, June 18, 1881 341
  8. Additional Protocol to the Convention of June 18, 1881. Berlin, June 27, 1881 342
  9. The Reinsurance Treaty, June 18, 1887 342

47. Turgenev's "Definition" of Nihilism 345

48. The Catechism of the Revolutionary, 1868 350

49' Demands of the Narodnaia Volia 355

  1. Program of the Narodnaia Volia, 7879 355
  2. A Letter from the Revolutionary Executive Committee of the Narodnaia Volia to Alexander III, March 22, 1881 359

50. The Russo-Turkish Treaty of San Stefano, March 3, 1878 363

51. Russian Panslavism: Danilevskii's Views 372

52. Pobedonostsev's Criticism of Modern Society 382

  1. The New Democracy 382
  2. The Greatest Falsehood of Our Time 384
  3. The Press 393

53. Program of Plekhanov's Group for the Emancipation of Labor, 1884 400

54. The Franco-Russian Military Convention, August 27, 1891 405

55. The Russo-Chinese Secret Treaty of Alliance, June 3, 1896 407

56. Father Gapon's Petition to Nicholas II, January 22, 1905 409

57. Concessions of Nicholas IT in the Revolution of 1905 414

  1. The October Manifesto, October 30, 1905 414
  2. The Cancellation of Redemption Payments, November 16, 1905 415

58. The Fundamental Laws of Imperial Russia, 1906 417

  1. The Fundamental Laws 417

59. Programs of Russian Political Patties 425

  1. Program of the Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party (Bolshevik), August 1903 426
  2. Program of the Socialist Revolutionary Party, 1905 431
  3. Program of the Russian Constitutional Democratic Party (Cadet), 1905 438
  4. Program of the Union of the Russian People, 1905 444

60. Witte's Account of His Premiership and His Views of the Jewish Problem

  1. Witte's Account of His Premiership
  2. Witte's Views of the Jewish Problem

61. The Russo-English Treaty on Persia, Afghanistan, and Tibet, August 31, 1907

  1. Arrangement concerning Persia 468
  2. Convention Concerning Afghanistan 470
  3. Arrangement Concerning Tibet 470
  4. Annex to the Arrangement between Great Britain and Russia Concerning Tibet 472

62. Russia and Japan on the Division of China, 1907­1916

  1. Secret Convention of July 30, 1907 473
  2. Secret Convention of July 4, 1910 475
  3. Secret Convention of July 8, 1912 477
  4. Tibet Convention of July 3, 1916 478

63. Rasputin: The Holy Devil 479

64. Durnovo's Memorandum February, 1914 491

  1. A Future Anglo-German War Will Become an Armed Conflict between Two Groups of Powers 491
  2. It is Hard to Discover Any Real Advantages to Russia in Rapprochement with England 492
  3. Fundamental Alignments in the Coming War 496
  4. The Main Burden of the War Will Fall on Russia 497
  5. The Vital Interests of Germany and Russia Do Not Conflict 499
  6. Russia's Economic Advantages and Needs Do Not Conflict with Germany's 500
  7. Even a Victory over Germany Promises Russia and Exceedingly Unfavorable Prospect 504
  8. A Struggle Between Russia and Germany is Profoundly Undesirable to Both Sides, as It Amounts to a Weakening of the Monarchist Principle 505
  9. Russia Will be Flung into Hopeless Anarchy, the Issue of Which Will be Hard to Foresee 507
  10. Germany, in Case of Defeat, is Destined to Suffer Social Upheavals No Less than those of Russia 507
  11. Peace Among the Civilized Nations is Imperiled Chiefly by the Desire of England to Retain Her Vanishing Domination of the Seas 508

65. Imperial Russia in World War I, 1914­1917

  1. Nicholas II's Manifesto on the Declaration of War, August 2, 1914 510
  2. M. V. Rodnzianko's Statement as Nicholas II's Reception of Duma Deputies, August 7, 1914 511
  3. An Appeal to Poles by Grand Duke Nikolai Mikhailovich, Russia's Supreme Commander-in-Chief, August 14, 1914 512
  4. A Decree Authorizing the Russification Policy for Finland, November 1914 513
  5. Program of the Progressive Bloc, September 1915 517
  6. A Resolution of the Congress of Representatives of the Provincial Zemstvo:, September 1925 517
  7. A Resolution of the Congress of Representatives of Russian Cities, September 1915 518
  8. A Letter to Nicholas II from Grand Duke Nikolai Mikhailovich Concerning Rural Conditions, December 1916 519
  9. A Resolution of the Congress of the Nobility, December 1916
  10. Nicholas II's Special Order of the Day, January 7, 1917 522

66. Abdication of the Romanovs, March 1917 523

  1. Abdication of Nicholas II, March 15,1917 524
  2. Declaration from the Throne by Grand Duke Michael, March 16, 1917 525

Illustrations 526

Chronological Table 539

Selected Bibliography 54

Maps

  1. Partitions of Poland, 1772-1795 101
  2. Napoleon's Russian Campaign, 1812 191
  3. Decembrists Revolt, Sr. Petersburg 1825 227
  4. Expansion of Russia in Europe, 1800-1878 380
  5. Expansion of Russia in the Far East, 1850-1900 411
  6. Expansion of Russia in Asia, 1550-1917 476

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