Non-English A foreign abbreviation may be used only after the full English translation is given and both the full foreign language term and abbreviation are given in parentheses immediately following the English.

Use the foreign abbreviation in subsequent text. Do not create an English abbreviation. For instance:
East Germany (Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR) would appear in subsequent text as DDR.

Organizations The names of government agencies, associations, fraternal and service organizations, network broadcasting companies, unions, and other groups are abbreviated using full caps and no periods




(These are spelled out when first used.) The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is responsible for....

Other Abbreviations United States US

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics USSR

Possessive of an Abbreviation To form the possessive of an abbreviation, use a napostrophe and a lowercase "s." e.g. CBS's; YMCA's

Punctuation in Abbreviations Note the use of periods in the following abbreviations:
c. et al. ibid. loc. cit. pro tem. e.g. et seq. i.e. op. cit. q.v.

Don't use periods in abbreviations for people, e.g. Franklin Delano Roosevelt FDR

Required List of Abbreviations A master list of abbreviations of works frequently cited in AIP encyclopedias, serials, and annuals is required at the front of each volume. If an abbreviation is contained in the master list there is no need to define it in an entry.

Science and Technology See Chicago (14.50) for abbreviations relating to science and technology except use:
bhp brake horsepower kw kilowatt

bp boiling point kwh kilowatt-hour

cp candlepower mpg miles per gallon

cps cycles per second mph miles per hour

hp horsepower rpm revolutions per minute

Social Titles Social titles (Mr., Mrs., Dr., etc.) are always abbreviated.

States Do not use postal abbreviations (ZIP letters).

Alabama Ala. Maine Me. North Dakota N.D.

Arizona Ariz. Maryland Md. Oklahoma Okla.

Arkansas Ark. Massachusetts Mass. Pennsylvania Penn.

California Cal. Michigan Mich. Rhode Island R.I.

Colorado Colo. Minnesota Minn. South Carolina S.C.

Connecticut Conn. Mississippi Miss. South Dakota S.D.

Delaware Del. Missouri Mo. Tennessee Tenn.

District of Columbia Washington, D.C. Montana Mont. Texas Tex.

Florida Fla. Nebraska Neb. Vermont Vt.

Georgia Ga Nevada Nev. Virginia Va.

Illinois Ill.. New Hampshire N.H. Washington Wash.

Indiana Ind. New Jersey N.J. West Virginia W.Va.

Kansas Kan New Mexico N.M. Wisconsin Wis.

Kentucky Ky. New York N.Y. Wyoming Wyo.

Louisiana La.. North Carolina N.C.

Alaska, Hawaii, Idaho, Iowa, Ohio, Oregon, Utah are spelled out.

Titles A title may be abbreviated with a full name, e.g. Lt. Gen. John P. Jones.

A title with a surname alone must be spelled, e.g. Lieutenant General Jones.

Unlisted Abbreviations Any abbreviation used in entries that is not contained in a master list for the volume or is not listed in Chicago must be spelled out at first mention with the abbreviation in parentheses.

Unusual Abbreviations If it is necessary to refer to an organization having an unfamiliar abbreviation, spell out the full form, followed by the abbreviation in parentheses, at the first mention within each entry. Use the abbreviated form thereafter.
Secret Police (NKVD); Communist Youth Internationsl (KIM); National Democratic Party (NDP)


Acronyms in Text At first mention spell out the term in full, preceded by "the," followed immediately by the acronym in caps in full parentheses. In subsequent use of the acronym delete "the" unless it is totally awkward: "Seeing defeat, NATO commanders decided"

Acronyms in Titles An acronym may not be used as, or in, an entry title. It may be used as a cross reference title to direct the reader to the appropriate entry. See section on "SEE" ENTRIES.

Non-English A foreign acronym may be used only after the full English translation is given and both the full foreign language term and acronym are given in parentheses immediately following the English. Use the foreign acronym in subsequent text. Do not create an English acronym. A master list of abbreviations and acronyms may be used to relate a foreign acronym to an existing and more identifiable English acronym.

Plurals Use a lowercase "s" without an apostrophe to form the plural of most acronyms. Use the apostrophe only if the acronym ends in "s."

Possessives To form the possessive of an acronym, use an apostrophe and a lowercase "s": " 's"


Method Alphabetization is word-by-word as set forth in Chicago (18.92). Note that a hyphenated compound

is treated as one word.
Numerals Numerals are alphabetized as if spelled out.

Parenthetical Ma- Ignore material in parentheses when alphabetizing. Do not eliminate it.

Person, Place, or
AIP does not subscribe to the Chicago rule of indexing in the order of person, place, and thing

Thing when these share the same name.
Personal Names See Chicago 18.102­18.122 except that names beginning with "Mac" come before those beginning

with "Mc."
Place Names See Chicago 18.123­18.125.


For treatment of amplified or related references see "SEE ALSO" ENTRIES section.


Abbreviations for The following abbreviations should be used for the place of publication for Russian sourced material:

Russian Cities K. Kiev Pb. or SPb. St. Petersburg L. Leningrad Pg. Petrograd M. Moscow
Abbreviations for There are no abbreviations for US cities.

US Cities

Abbreviations for If the name of a state is required to identify properly a US city, use the old style abbreviation for the

US States state, not the postal zip code.
Authors and Editors List authors and editors by first name, middle initial, and last name. Do not list last name first. Cite the

author of an encyclopedia entry listed in the bibliography.
Biblical References A biblical reference must contain sufficient information for the reader to local the same source the author has cited. In addition to the version of the bible, there must be some readily understandable presentation of the book, chapter, verse, psalm, etc.identified as such

Capitalization in Capitalize every important word in English titles. Capitalize only the first word of titles in Russian, Titles except for proper names. For non-English titles follow the rules for the original language.    


Contents, Impor- Entry bibliographies are almost as important as the entry in (1) lending authority to the entry and (2)

tance, and Purpose guiding the reader to further information.

Bibliographies must identify the sources used by the author and direct the reader to additional infor-
mation on the topic; must list at least five items and emphasize the latest pertinent materials,

including both primary and secondary sources and, where appropriate, archives, bibliographies,
documents, and books of illustrations in English, in the language of the culture in question, and in other languages in the case of particularly important materials. The bibliography should give brief critical evaluations of these items when this is called for. Balance among bibliographical items in different languages is required. Because this is an international publication, sources in non-English language are vital. The needs of the target readership determines the structure of the bibliography. Bibliographies must be up to date.

"D.C." Do not include "D.C." if the place is Washington, D.C.
Foreign Cities as Less common foreign names should be spelled out. Use the anglicized version of the place name

Places of Publcation according to Webster's when available.

Format See page 5.
Individual Biblio- Each entry must have its own bibliography. Do not refer to another entry and state, or imply, that its

graphies bibliography is applicable to the first entry. The use of "See Below" or "See the Following (Entry)" is

Miscellaneous An encyclopedia is treated as a journal when it is referenced.
Multiple Volume In citing a work with more than one volume, give the general title and the number of volumes.


Page Numbers Use all numbers for inclusive pages, in arabic figures.
Cite page numbers for encyclopedias, monographs, and journals.

Do not use "p." or "pp." when giving page numbers. (This does not apply to the text.)

Ph.D. Dissertations Cite Ph.D. dissertations as: "Ph.D. diss., Yale University, 1975." Enclose in parentheses and always

spell "University" in full.

Publication Place/Date Place the city and date (year) in parentheses, separated by a comma, e.g.(New York, 1929).
If two or more cities are listed as the place of publication (as pretentious US university presses are

wont to do) the reference in the bibliography shall be for just onegenerally the firstwhere the main

university press office is located.
Leave the state out of the information unless the city is obscure and the state is not self-evident.
Incitingtheplace of publication, Cambridge is assumed to be in England. If it is in the US add "Mass."

No parentheses is used for dates when citing weekly or daily publications (an exception to this rule

if the information is in a sentence in a bibliography, parens may be used).

Placement of Biblio- See section ENTRYSAMPLE FORMAT.
graphy in the Entry

Publisher Information Omit the publisher except for AIP publications
Punctuation If a bibliography or part of a bibliography consists basically of a sentence, use commas and end with

a period. If it is basically a list, use semi-colons and end with a period. Example, comma: For other informed coverage of the topic and diverse opinions read Adam Aardvard, Wandering in North America (New York, 1986), 55­90, John Jones, The Great Treasure of Our Southwest, 5 (Cambridge, Mass., 1985), 109­113, and William Woods, Hidden Places in the Open (Los Angeles, 1984), 397­ 403. Example, semi-colons: Adam Aardvard, Wandering in North America (New York, 1986), 55­90; John Jones, The Great Treasure of Our Southwest, 5 (Cambridge, Mass., 1985), 109­113; William Woods, Hidden Places in the Open (Los Angeles, 1984), 397­403.

Periods, not colons, are used to separate parts of compound titles of books, journals, and newspaper
articleseven if the original title used a colon.

Reprints Cite original work, place and date. Do not list reprints.
Source Credits Source credits at the end of an article appear as:

(From Russkii biograficheskii slovar'); (Adapted from)

If original has no bibliography: FromZhurnal Moskovskoi, 9, 1964,61­66, with bibliography added;

Adapted from

If original's bibliography is supplemented. From Evreiskaia entsiklopediia with additional bibliography.
Citation of introduction to books, etc.: "Intro B. Smith."








Always a Comma

After Names

A Comma Only if

Information Included

After Name(s)

Almost Always a

Comma After

the Title

Always a Comma After Parens if Page No(s) Given

Use Semi-colon if

More References, a Period After the Last


BIBLIOGRAPHY EXAMPLES (apply to all AIP works)

Book Avetik Isahakian, Hishatakaran (Memoirs) (Yerevan, 1977). Parentheses for translation of titles.

Harry C. Kariher, Who's Who in Hockey (New Rochelle, N.Y., 1973), 17­18.

Henry Steel Commager, Documents of American History, 9th ed., (Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1973).

Henry Steel Commager, Documents of American History, 9th ed., 2 vols. (Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1973).

Meletius M. Solovey, The Byzantine Divine Liturgy, trans. by Demetrius E. Wysochansky (Washington, 1970).

I.P. Eremin and D.S. Likhachev, eds., Khudozhestvennaia proza kievskoi Rusi XI­XIII vekov (M., 1957),


D.R. Jones, "The Scotch of Choice" in Audry Sue Snickers, Looking at You (Snively, Tenn., 1996), 42-49.

Court Case Smiley v. Holm, 285 U.S. 355 (1932).

Dates in Titles C. Kelley, A History of Writing, 1910­1920. Use comma before dates in all book, article, etc. titles.

Encyclopedia Jerry Jaye Wright, "Barlow," Biographical Dictionary of American Sports. Basketball and Other Indoor Sports,

ed. by David L. Porter (Westport, Conn., 1989), 14­15.

M.F. Zirin, "Vera Inber," Encyclopedia of Jazz, Vol. 1 (New York, 1993), 56-57.

Forewords, Iu. Barabash, "An Uninterrupted Advance." Introduction to The Shore of Love by Edward B. Rice (M., 1980), 5­

Introductions 10. Period precedes a capital letter. (I)

David R. Jones, foreword to Poems by Merry D. Day (Frankfurt a. M., 1964).

Journal "Thomas R.R. Cobb and the 'Better Terms' Argument," The Georgia Historical Quarterly, 60 (Spring, 1976),


Peter A. Brannon, "John Coffee in Alabama, 1814," Arrow Points, 19 (July 1929), 67­72.

E.J. Harden, "The Murder of Griboedov. New Materials," Birmingham Slavonic Monographs, No. 6 (1979);

L. Grossman, "Osnavatel' novoi kritiki," Russkaia mysl', Vol. 11, No. 2 (1914), 1­18.

H.H. Howorth, "The Avars," Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 21 (1889), 721­810.

Edwin B. Sayles, "The Cochise Cultural Sequence in Southeastern Arizona," Anthropological Papers of the

University of Arizona, No. 42 (Tucson, Ariz., 1983).

Multiple Volumes (See page 25.)

Newspaper K. Simonov, "Sud'ba khudozhnika," Pravda, 4 August 1963. Page numbers not used in newspapers.

Periodical Alfred Wright, "Sportsman of the Year. Terry Baker," Sports Illustrated, 7 January 1963, 16­21.

Sammuel J. Smith, "Graphic Originals," Illustrated Monthly, November 1976, 16. Page numbers used in

periodicals. (continued)




PPh.D. diss. Albert G. Applin II, "From Muscular Christianity to the Marketplace. The History of Men's and Boy's Basketball

in the United States, 1891­1957" (Ph.D. diss., University of Massachusetts, 1982).

Regulation Code of Federal Regulations, TItle 30, Chapter 7, Department of the Interior, Office of Surface Mining Reclama-

tion and Enforcement (Washington, 1981).


Titles in Other Titles in other languages are listed after the reference. E.g.In Azeri: Eserli, 2 vols. (Baku, 1958).

Languages In English: Leyla and Mejnun (London, 1970).

Unknown Date When the date of publication is unknown or not available use n.d. E.g. (Boston, n.d.).
of Publication

Unknown Place When the place of publication is unknown or not available use n.p. E.g. (n.p., 1953).

of Publication

"Volume" Use "Vol." (cap. "V") only if necessary for clarity to identify a specific volume in a series.

Preference is to omit the abbreviated term and use the arabic numeral only. Use "vol." (lowercase "v")

when indicating the number of volumes in the series. When citing "volumes" always use arabic

numerals regardless of the actual title.
Volume and Issue Volume and issue numbers are to be used only for scholarly or academic journals cited. Volume and
Numbers issue numbers are not used when popular magazines or newspapers are cited, no matter the fre-

Do not use the Byzantine calendar for any dates.

Gregorian Use the Gregorian calendar for 1918 dates and after when writing about Russia.

Julian Use the Julian calendar for dates before 1918 when writing about Russia.

Use of Calendars See section on DATES for use of Gregorian and Julian dates.


Basic Guidance Follow Chicago's preference of down (lowercase) style (Chapter 7). In general avoid nonessential


Consistency in the style of capitalization is important because it is one of the easiest errors in editing
for readers to detect. Editorial carelessness in this area is a sure way to undermine confidence in a

General, Misc. Begin a single word or phrase that follows a colon with a lowercase letter unless the first word is a
proper name or begins a complete sentence.

In text: "book two," "volume two," "second edition" are all lowercase.
German-loaned words (nouns) that have a secure place in the English language should be lowercase

(Chi. 6.58): angst, leitmotif, gestalt, but Rahmennovelle.

In Cross References See CROSS REFERENCES section.
In Entry Titles See ENTRY TITLES section.

In Text The following basic rules and examples should help in avoiding inconsistencies.

Capitalize Do Not Capitalize

Civil, military, religious and professional If a title is used in apposition to a name

titles and titles of nobility immediately (the emperor Napoleon [that is, the

preceding a personal name. (President emperor who was Napoleon]

Washington, General Eisenhower) German general Rommel)

The title following a personal name if The title following a personal name in the

in formal usage. text (George Washington, president of the

(Gentlemen, the President of the United States)

United States)

A title used in place of a name in direct A title used in the text that does not

address precede or follow a person's name

(all secure, Captain, ready to sail) (the colonel gave the order)





Academic degrees and honors that General reference to academic degrees

follow a personal name. (doctorate, doctor's, bachelor's,

(John L. Jones, M.D. master of art)

Paul A. Tim, Doctor of Law)

Names of racial, linguistic, tribal, Designations based only on color, size,

religious or other groupings (Bushmen, or local usage.

Pygmy, Aryan, American Indian) (bushmen, pygmy, white, red man)

Political divisions of the worlda Political divisions when they precede

country, state, city, etc. that follow a name a name or stand alone

and are accepted as part of the name. (empire under Charlemagne, city of New

(Holy Roman Empire, New York City, York, the province)

Province of Quebec)

Generic terms used as a part of a name Generic terms used in a plural following

and a generic term that precedes more than more than one name or when it is used

one name (Bering Strait, Great Barrier Reef, descriptively or alone (the Blackwater and

Hudson River, Lakes Superior and Huron, Styx rivers, the Saginaw River Valley, the

Mounts Baldy and Everest) valley of the Snake River, the Mexican

coast, the Texas prairie)

Terms such as street, drive, bridge, church, Terms that stand alone or that are used

hotel, etc. when they are part of a formal collectively after two or more names

or official name. (the Golden Gate and Oakland bridges, the

(Golden Gate Bridge, Lincoln Park, Empire park, the Aetna and Times buildings, the

State Building, St. John's Church) church)

Lists Editors should build capitalization lists into their computers so they can use spellchecking functions to

check consistency of capitalization quickly.

Movements, Styles, Nouns and adjectives designating philosophical, literary, musical, and artistic movements, styles, and
Schools schools and their adherents are capitalized when they are derived from proper nouns. Others are

usually lowercased unless, in certain contexts, capitalization is needed to distinguish the name of a
movement or group from the same word in its general sense.This classification of names and terms is
one most dependent on editorial discretion; each particular term must be treated consistently.
Official Names The official or formal name is that which is capitalized in English. For instance, if the official name of a country translates to the "Republic of Xanadu" the capitalization of "Republic" is correct. If it is a country named Xanadu that is a republic, it would be "republic of Xanadu." This same guidance applies to churches, cathedrals, etc. as well as ecclesiastical organizations.
Communist Party In all original and editorial material, and in translations into English by an AIP author, use Communist

Capitalization Party. Do not use "Party" or "party." This avoids all confusion about Party/party capping. In documents retain the caps as given in FBIS or other sources used in AIP books.

Quick Reference to There are numerous capitalization problems not addressed above. The following, referenced to

Capitalization Chicago, should speed look ups.

(from Chicago)
Acts, Treaties, and Government Programs
(7.67)Monroe Doctrine
Associations and Conferences (7.587.59)Geneva Conference

Cultural Movements and Styles (7.66)Doric, pop art

Events (Chi. 7.65)Fall of Rome, Prohibition, gold rush, western movement

Foreign Names (7.8­7.14)

Foreign Terms in Names (7.42)Rio Grande (not Rio Grande River since "Rio" means "River")

Governmental and Judicial Bodies (7.47­7.53)Soviet government, Provisional government

Institutions and Companies (7.57)

Military Terms (7.93­7.97)

Parts of the World (7.34)North, North Atlantic, northern Russia, North Russia, Western powers, eastern front

Periods (7.60­7.64)Dark Ages, victorian era, baroque period

Political and Economic Organizations and Alliances (7.54­7.56)Republican party, Socialist party

Popular Names (7.35)the Channel, Deep South, South Seas


8 contributors  

Quick Reference to



Religious Names and Terms (7.74­7.92)
Words Derived from Proper Names (7.46)arabic figures, roman numerals

Author Signature Author signature lines, contributors' page, and releases require the full name for authors (first, middle

Lines initial, last). They follow the entry on the next line. Use all lines. Type flush right on the next line, in bold and italics. Type multiple contributor names on one line, separated by "and."

Contributors' Page The list of contributors contained in each volume having one will give the names and institutional or other affiliations of all persons who have written, edited or translated material included in the volume, in bold and italics. Contributors will be identified with a first name, middle initial, and last name, all in roman, on one line. The affiliation is in italics and the city and state in roman with normal punctuation, on the next line.

The names of the authors of translated materials will appear in the appropriate entry, not in this list.
For Western authors the full name is required. For Soviet contributors follow the convention appropri-

ate to the language in question.

"Based in part on information courtesy of"
Placement Courtesy Lines are in a separate paragraph as the last item of text before any standard subhead (e.g. Bibliography:).

Purpose A Courtesy Line is used to acknowledge assistance from an association, individual, institution, or

group. It is a literary "thank you."


For treatment of cross references see "SEE" ENTRIES section.

Abbreviation of The year alone is abbreviated only in informal texts. This is not an informal text.


A.D. The designation A.D. is assumed in all AIP texts and titles. If it must be used it precedes the year:

"thirty years later in A.D. 21"; "99 B.C.­A.D. 18"
Apostrophes in Do not use an apostrophe after a year or a decade: 1940s, not 1940's.

The designation B.C. always follows the year and must be used as an explicit identifier since A.D. is

assumed in the absence of any other indicator.
Centuries Spell out an ordinal number if ninety-nine or less and hyphenate in the attributive position:

"eighteenth-century literature," but "in the eighteenth century."
Complete Dates Complete dates are written in the sequence of day-month-year: 7 December 1941.

Circa Use "c." with a space following, not "about:" (c. 1445­1498).
Day of the Month The day of the month is written in the sequence of day-month: 17 March; not March 17.

Decades Use 1870s, not 1870's; avoid "seventies."

Gregorian Calendar When writing about Russia use the Gregorian calendar for 1917 dates and after.



In Entry Headings Almost all entries require dates in the entry headings and the majority of the dates required are "from-
to" (ranged). See section on ENTRY TITLES for examples of various considerations.

Do not use both old (Julian) and new (Gregorian) dates in entry headings. Avoid the problem and use

only Gregorian.
In Text In the text dates are written in the sequence day-month, month-year, or day-month-year without

punctuation. The date of the day alone is spelled out: twenty-third, not 23rd. The month alone is
spelled out, not abbreviated: February, not Feb.

Show both old and new dates if the subject applies to Russia and the dates are prior to 1917.





Julian Calendar When writing about Russia use Julian calendar dates prior to 1917. Be sure to show both old and

Dates new dates.

Month and Year The month and year are written in that sequence, without punctuation: March 1943.

Non-Existent Dates If a date does not exist, no date of death for a living person, the non-existent date is identified with a
in Headings single blank space: (1914­ ).

Old and New Dates If the subject applies to Russia and the dates are prior to 1917 show both the old and new dates: 30

May (11 June) 1864.
Ranges of Years in Use "from 1910 to 1917."

Ranges of Years in
From-to dates in titles are shown with all figures: (1914­1989).

Unknown Dates in
If a date is not known indicate with a question mark: (?­1948); (1867­?).

Years in Text
The year alone should be in figures (1776). Years are written out at the beginning of a sentence:

"Nineteen seventy-six was our bicentennial year."

SAMPLE FORMAT (1991­ ). The identification line follows the title and states the significance of the

The text follows. It is written in a scholarly style.

Remember that the reader may have very little knowledge of the English language and that his
formal education may be that of a high school senior or beyond. Do not assume common knowledge.

Other considerations are presented throughout this guide, particularly in the section on WRITING

If used, a Courtesy Line precedes the next standard subhead.

Bibliography: At least five up-to-date references are required for this subhead.
Author's Signature Line


Abbreviations There are to be no abbreviations in an entry title. The following is an example of the wrong way:


BARREL FUTURITIES OF AMERICA (BFA) (1983­ ). The initials, or acronym, should be placed in

the text immediately following the first use of the full title in the text.
Acronyms Acronyms may not be used as title for entries. If necessary, they may be used as a cross reference to

the correct title for the entry, as follows:

Alternate Non-Eng- Do not use alternate foreign words or terms for titles in the entry title, not even in parentheses. These
lish Words go in the text.

Alternate Spelling If there is an alternate spelling to the title use it as a cross reference to the correct title:

of Title

Alternate Spelling Do not place the alternate spelling of a word in the title on the title line. It should be in the text that
of Words immediately follows.

Ambiguous An entry title should be clear and concise. The following is an example of an ambiguous title:


Born Date Do not use a "born" only date with a title. A date range is required for articles about people.

Blind Entry A blind entry is the same as a cross reference, used to direct the reader to the proper entry.
Ceremonies ALL-NIGHT VIGIL. Russian: vsenoshonoe bdenie. Text begins. [Note that this example is an

exception to the requirement for dates.]

Court Cases COLEGROVE v. GREEN, 328 U.S. 549 (1946).



Date Approximated (1903­1939?)

DateAn Era If the century is the only date available express it as (5th century).

Date Not Occurred (1935­ ) [End date left open, person still living.]

Date Unknown (?­1626)


Date Unknown (1941­ ?)

Dates as Part of
Almost all entry titles require accompanying dates. These are placed in parentheses immediately

Title following the title, which is in bold. The dates are not in bold, and are followed by a period.
Dates Unknown (dates unknown)

Dates Within the On rare occasions it is necessary to place dates within the title. An example of this would be an event
Title that took place two or more timeseverything being the same except the year:

ACRE, SIEGE OF (1190).

ACRE, SIEGE OF (1291).
ACRE, SIEGE OF (1799).

Note that the dates in parentheses are in bold so that they are considered within the title.

Distinguishing when When a leading title word will lead to confusion because of frequent repetition in succeeding titles a

Common Words distinction must be made, even though awkward:

Create Confusion.

COBB, FORT, OKLAHOMA [This form is preferred to several successive entries that all begin with
Foreign Publication GRÁNI (1946­ ). English: Facets. Russian quarterly review devoted to

[Note that the title is all roman even though this is the title of a publication.]
French Name COLIGNY, GASPARD II DE (1519­1572). [Note the treatment of the family generation.]

Holidays CHRISTMAS (25 December). [Note that this is an exception to the requirement for and portrayal of a


Informal Names BARLOW, THOMAS BRYAN "CAVE MAN" (1896­1983). "Babe" Barlow was one of the early stars

in the game of [Note that the nickname is in quotation marks and that a second nickname appears
early in the text.]

Institutions ALL-RUSSIAN MUSLIM LEAGUE. Turkish: Ittifaq al-Muslimin. Russian: Vserusskoe.
Legislation CIVIL SERVICE REFORM ACT OF 1978, 5 USC 1101 (1992 et seq.).
Use US Code (USC) designation. Do not use House or Senate designation except in text.

Military Equipment AA-2 (dates). NATO: Atoll. Soviet anti-ballistic missile.

Use the designator from the country of origin as the title. Use the NATO or other designator in the

identification line only and not as part of the entry title. Thereafter use the original designator from the

country of origin. This applies to US and non-US alike.

Monastic Names ANTONY BULATOVICH (1870­1919). Secular name Alexander Ksaverievich Bulatovich.
Identification and text commences.
Nickname with Fam- BARRY, RICHARD FRANCIS DENNIS III "RICK" (1944­ ).

ily Generation
Non-US Court Cases
For Non-US court cases and legislation, follow the official style of the country of origin.

and Legislation
Pseudonyms, etc.
Do not use pseudonyms, maiden names, aliases, or birth names as part of the title. They go in the

text immediately after the title and identification line.
Publication Title BAPTIST (1907­1914, 1925­1929). [Note that the title is all in romanalso note the treatment of two

date ranges.]
Range of Years Always give full dates for "from"-"to." E.g. 1898­1933; 1776­1778

Reign Entry ALEXANDER I (1770­1825, ruled 1801­1825).
Roman Characters All title entries are in roman characters. This includes the title of a book if used as the title of an entry.

Specific Dates Specific dates, i.e. day/month/year are not used with entry titles. The exception is if the entry deals

with a specific day, such as a holiday, that always occurs on the same date.







There are no footnotes to text in encyclopedias and annuals, except SAFRA at present. Should an exception occur (God forbid!), elevate numbers in text but place on same line as note with a period and space where the notes are listed and placed.


General Non-English words and terms that are not in common use are not to be used.

Translation Translation of foreign words and terms is prefered to transliteration.

Untranslated Untranslated non-English words are used only for technical or other terms that have achieved

acceptance in English usage, such as "soviet."

Use of Keep the use of foreign words and terms to an absolute minimum. Use English with the foreign term

in parentheses and English thereafter in the text. When a foreign word is shown in parentheses after
the English term, always indicate whether the foreign word is singular or plural. Note that the foreign

word is not italicized when in the parentheses and that "sing." and "pl." are shown. For example: at
the outdoor festival (gulianie, sing.; gulianiia, pl.)

Adverbs Ending in Adverbs ending in "-ly" combined with a participle or adjective are always left open: highly developed;

"-ly" barely living.

Adverbs Other Adverbs ending in other than "-ly," when combined with a participle or adjective are usually hyphen-

Than "-ly" ated: long-lived; much-loved.
Applicability of These instructions refer only to hyphenation as spelling and not to the dividing of words with hyphens

Guide for for line justification.

Cardinal Numbers When a cardinal number is combined with a unit of measure, hyphenate the compound if it precedes
the noun: ten-foot pole; one-inch margin; 18- to 20-year olds.
Centuries Hyphenate centuries as part of a modifier standing before a noun: eighteenth-century literature.

Changed Meanings Hyphenate a word if closing it would change its meaning: re-creation; un-ionized.
Combinations of Hyphenate any new creations that are combinations of words, including prepositional phrases: stay-

Words at-home; stick-in-the-mud.

Compound Forms Hyphenate compounds in which the second element is a capitalized word or a numeral: anti-Semitic;

Compounds from Compounds formed from unhyphenated proper names are always open: Central European; New

Unhyphenated Testament.
Proper Names

"Cross" Compounds Any temporary adjectival "cross-" compound can be hyphenated: cross-referenced.
Double Letters Avoid hyphenation unless closing up would produce a double letter: non-native; anti-intellectual.
"Ex-" Prefix Compounds with the prefix "ex-" meaning "former" are hyphenated: ex-president; ex-husband.


Foreign Phrases Foreign phrases used as adjectives are not hyphenated unless hyphenated in the original language:

grand prix; a priori; but lassez-faire.
Fractional Numbers Connect the numerator and denominators in spelled-out fractional numbers unless either already

contains a hyphen: one-half, two-thirds; three sixty-fourths.
"High-" Compounds "High-" adjectival compounds are hyphenated with a few exceptions given in the dictionary as one

word rather than two, e.g.: highborn.
"-like" Compounds Compounds formed with "-like" are not hyphenated unless formed with proper nouns or end in "ll:"

catlike; gull-like.


12 Identification Lines

"Low-" Compounds "Low-" adjectival compounds are hyphenated with a few exceptions given in the dictionary as one

word rather than two, e.g.: lowborn.

Noun + Gerund Temporary compounds formed with a noun and a gerund are spelled as separate words: problem

Temporary solving; bird watching. Permanent compounds (bookkeeping, dressmaking) are spelled as one word
Compounds if they are found as such in the dictionary.

Noun + Noun Com- Hyphenate compounds consisting of different and equally important functions: author-critic; city-state;
pounds soldier-statesman.
Phrases Used as Phrases used as adjectives are hyphenated; matter-of-fact approach.

Prefixes Without
The following is a partial list of prefixes that do not take hyphens:

ante bio infra meta multi pre semi trans

anti co inter micro non pro sub ultra
bi counter intra mid over pseudo super un

extra macro mini post re supra under

Second Element Hyphenate compounds in which the second element consists of more than one word: non-English-

Compounds speaking people; pre-Civil War society. Note that, as in the second example, if the second element

consists of two or more unhyphenated words, they remain unhyphenated in the newly formed

"Self-" Compounds Compounds beginning with "self-" are hyphenated: self-taught.
"Well-" Compounds Compounds beginning with "well-" are hyphenated: well-known. If a compound with "well-" carries a
modifier it is not hyphenated: very well known.

"-wide" Compounds Compounds formed with "-wide" are generally not hyphenated unless cumbersome: worldwide;

"all" Compounds All America, All Americas, "was All America." Caps, not hyphenated

Examplea Person COLLIER, PETER
(1835­1896). Agricultural chemist who applied scientific principles to agricultural

research and expounded the potential of sorghum as a source of sugar.

Examplea Place BALMORAL PARK (1926­ ). Formerly Lincoln Fields, a racetrack for thoroughbred horses in Crete,

Examplean Or- BAPTISTS, UNION OF RUSSIAN (1884­1935). Voluntary association of autonomous congregations

ganization of Baptist sectarians.
Explained The Identification Line is an introductory statement that identifies the topic and suggests its signifi-

cance by giving the Who, What, Why, When, Where of the entry.
Leading Articles In most cases a leading article such as "A," "An," or "The" should be dropped from the identification line.

Placement The Identification Line follows immediately after the Entry Title of the article.
Significance Statement Must be part of, or immediately follow identification line/sentence. It must be specific. "Major impact on" etc., are insufficient.


Advance Approval Tables can be sent to the publisher in advance of the manuscript for approval and formatting.

Column Heads Column heads are roman. Capitalize every important word. Keep column heads parallel across the page.

Column Subheads Subheads are italic.

Dimensions Maximum for illustrations smaller than full page: 3 x 3 1/2 (7.5 x 8 cm). Maximum for full-page: 4 1/2 x

7 in. (11.5 x 18 cm). Number illustrations, figures, and graphics sequentially within the entry.

Footnotes Table footnotes will be used only if absolutely necessary. Number footnotes consecutively using ara-

bicnumerals.Withinatabledenotesuperscriptednumeralsbyenclosingthemwithslashmarks:/1/;/2 /. At base of table use "1." "3.", skip two spaces, begin with a cap, normal punctuation. Start each foot-
note on separate line.





General Illustrations may be provided by either the author or the editor. Black-and-white drawings and photo- graphs, diagrams, charts and maps only. They must be very high quality, camera-ready, and free of copyright restrictions. Include title, attribution and date.

Maps, Illustrations Must be submitted exactly as they will appear in books, i.e. "camera-ready copy." Each must have a descriptive caption. Each must indicate its place in the text. Place each in its position in the MS.

Numbering Number illustrations, tables, figures, and graphs consecutively in each category within each entry.

Permissions Must accompany each copyrighted item. Obtained by the author.

Placement Center tables and title on page. Do not use lines (rules).

Paste or staple where the item should appear. If insufficient space, place at top margin of next page

and mark where it should appear.

Whenever possible tables and figures will be set on one page. If breaking is necessary continued

lines will be: "continued" set flush left at bottom of page; "TABLE X (continued)" set flush right at top
of following page.

AIP may move graphics if necessary to get them on one page.
Punctuation Be consistent with punctuation in tables. If one or more requires ending punctuation, use ending
punctuation for all.

Quality Line drawing must be black and white with all lettering complete, clear, high quality. Photos black and white only, high contrast, very clear and bright. Color not accepted.

Vertical Spacing Place title on next line, just as text. Numbers or column heads go on the next line. Lines of numbers
are placed on the next and succeeding lines. Do not single space. Footnotes go on the next line after

numbers end. Do not single space.

Wording Be consistent with wording in tables.
Tables, Charts Use instead of linear numerics when more than 15-20 numbers are given. Adds clarity, saves space.
Graphs Use organizational charts for systems such as courts, bureaus, military, etc.


For Emphasis The use of italics for emphasis is prohibited.

For Foreign Terms Foreign words contained in parentheses are not to be placed in italics. If a foreign term is used (which should be rarely) it should be in italics. Excluded from this rule are terms, particularly French and Latin, that are in common use; they should not be in italics. Perestroika and glasnost are examples.

In Text In the text italics are used for book titles and names of ships only. This is a major exception to the rules in Chicago.

The Russian Law, The Primary Chronicle, etc. are documents not books, hence not italicized.

Punctuation With Punctuation following italics in the text should be italic, except for brackets and parentheses.

Typing Use underlining to indicate italics.

Within Parentheses No italics appear within parentheses in the text.


Entries In Keep all entries within a given list in parallel construction.

In Text For numbered lists in text use: (1), (2), (3)

Special Requirements If deeper subnumbering than has been shown is required, use Chicago 8.75. Avoid this situation if


Use of Use a numbered list only when the sequence is significant.

Vertical Lists For numbered vertical lists offset from the text use the following system.




Bold Print To indicate bold print with a typewriter use double underlining. E.g. John P. Jones would print John P. Jones


14 Measurements

Dashes In manuscript type dashes as two hyphens with no space before or after. Keep usage to a minimum.

Hyphenation If preparing manuscript on a computer do not use optional hyphens . They disappear in conversion from one computer program to another.

Italics Use a single underline with a typewriter to indicate italics. E.g. Webster's Dictionary would print Webster's Dictionary.

If your software shows bold and italics formatting on screen and your printer prints bolds and italics, please format appropriately and disregard underlining instructions above as they are meant for MSS produced on a typewriter.

Line Justification Do not hyphenate for justification in your manuscript submission. Do not hyphenate any word at the

end of a line or page.

Page Numbering Each page must be numbered sequentially in top right cornerentire MS, not by entries or articles, etc.

Specific Instructions Instructions applicable to specific topics are presented throughout the Style Sheet in appropriate


In the Text Spell out the words kilometers, meters, liters, feet, miles, pounds, etc. in the text. This rule does not
apply to material in parentheses.

Original Language The unit of measure in the language of origin may be added at the author's discretion to satisfy

foreign readership. If so, it follows the metric equivalents in the same parentheses and is separated
from them by a semicolon.

Punctuation An abbreviated international (metric) unit of measure is not punctuated. English or other units of
measure are punctuated if abbreviated.
Spacing Space between the number and the unit of measure. For example: "They travelled 3.1 miles (5 km)

before stopping." Note that there is a space between the number and the unit of measure when the
unit of measure is abbreviated.

Standard All measurements should be given in standard American units with their metric equivalents added in
parentheses immediately following.
Time See section on TIME.

See section on ABBREVIATIONS.

Accent Marks Include accent marks on all habitually used French words: a lá; passé; emigré.

Acronyms See section on ACRONYMS.

German-loaned German-loaned words (nouns) that have a secure place in the English language should be lower

case: angst, leitmotif, gestalt, but Rahmennovelle.

Not Commonly Used Non-English words not in common use are not to be used.

Titles of Publica- The titles of non-English publications, including literary works, periodicals, and source materials are
tions in the Text translated on first appearance, followed by the title in the original language, transliterated from non-

roman alphabets, and the date of first publication. The transliterated title and date of publication are in

parentheses and without italics. E.g. An Old Liberal (Staryi liberal, 1886) The translation is used thereafter unless the title is widely known in the original language. Note that the original title in
transliterated form always will be given in bibliographies.
Address Numbers
Address numbers are written in arabic numerals before the street name. When a building's name is
its address the number may be written. One Park Place.

After Monarchs Use roman numerals after the names of monarchs: Elizabeth II; John XXIII

Approximate Num- Approximate figures in the hundreds, thousands, millions, or billions should be spelled out.

Thousands should be used only with even thousands. A number such as 2,500 is written as twenty-

five hundred. For numbers such as these the preference is for the use of numerals. They must be written out if they appear at the beginning of a sentence.
Arabic Numerals Use arabic numerals in all text.





Beginning a Sen- Any number that would ordinarily be written in figures that appears at the beginning of a sentence

tence should be spelled, e.g. "Ten men and a strong boy are required."

Commas With Use commas between groups of three digits, counting from the right. 2,312; 58,998; 4,216,300.

Date Ranges In giving date ranges use all of the numbers in both the "from" and "to" dates. 1910­1976
Decimals Decimals are set in figures: 3.487

Highway Numbers Highways are designated by arabic numerals: U.S. Route 101; Florida 87.

Inclusive Numbers When stating inclusive numbers give all numbers in both the "from" and the "to" number. This applies

to page and date ranges and to titles, text, and bibliographic entries. (Note that this is a major

exception to Chicago.)

Latitude and Longi- Latitude/Longitude are shown as: "Latitude 42° 39´ Longitude 73° 49&#180W&#180&#180
Use spaces around mathematical operators: 3 + 4 = 7.

When used to denote gun, cannon or artillery size, there is no space between figure (number) and abbreviation: 100mm gun.

Miscellaneous For abbreviations of second and third use "2nd" and "3rd," not "2d" or "3d." This applies to both text
and bibliography.

Numbers with Ab- If an abbreviation or a symbol is used for a unit of measure, the quantity should always be expressed

breviations by a figure: 3 mi., 50 lbs. Space between the figure and the abbreviation.
Ordinal Numbers When used for governments, political divisions, or military units an ordinal number is written if it is one

hundred or less.
Government Political Division Military

Eighteenth Dynasty Fifth District First Corps
Fifth Republic Thirty-first Ward Fifth Army

102nd Congress 103rd Precinct 324th Air Wing

Page Ranges In giving page ranges use all of the numbers in both the "from" and "to" pages.

Percent The word percent is used in place of the symbol "%."

Percentages Percentages are set in figures in humanistic copy: 25 percent.

Roman numerals Use lower-case numerals when referring to page numbers in front matter of a publication.

Same Category Numbers applicable to the same category should be treated alike throughout a paragraph. Do not use

Numbers figures for some and spell out others. "There are 25 graduate students in the philosophy department,

56 in the classics department, and 117 in the romance languages department, making a total of 198

students in the three departments." Use numerals in such sequences as above even when under 99.
In certain constructions, numbers may appear in parentheses. "He led the league in hits (213), triples
(21), and stolen bases (7)."
Spelled Out Spell out exact numbers one through ninety-nine. Numbers referring to parts of a book, addresses,

four-digit year numbers (five or more use commas), and scientific copy are exceptions to this general


Street Numbers Numbered streets are written if one hundred or less: Fourth Street, 115th Street.
Similar Subjects
Encyclopedia entries concerning similar subject matter should be similarly organized. The same

information should be presented in the same manner (format) for topics in the same category. Thus,

entries dealing with aircraft, personalities, institutions, and so forth should have the same perfor-

mance information, physical description, biographical data, etc. in the same order.
Subtopics Help the reader, especially with longer entries and those that are complicated because they include
technical information. Organize the entry so that the use of subheads will assist the reader in making
the transition from one subtopic to the next. See the section on SUBHEADS for examples.

Apostrophe in Dates
Do not use an apostrophe after a year or a decade: 1940s, not 1940's.
Apostrophe in Ex- Use an apostrophe in expressions similar to these: "an hour's delay," "in three days' time," and "two

pressions of Duration months' wait."



Brackets Use only for editorial remarks inserted into quoted material. Rewrite to avoid whenever possible. If

inserting brackets, add "­Ed.".

Commas after Don't put a comma after an adverb of time that starts a sentence such as "then" or "now."

Commas in Com-
Unless clauses are very short, use a comma in a compound sentence.

pound Sentences
Commas in Series
Use a serial comma in a series before "and" or "or" introducing the last item in the series: In discuss-

ing literature, art, and music. Keller produced twenty-eight home runs and 108 RBIs, and Joseph Gordon hit"
CommasUn- Avoid unnecessary commas, especially following short prepositional phrases: In France he met

Commas with Com-
Don't use a comma before the conjunction in a compound predicate.

pound Predicate
Commas with Num-
Use a comma between groups of three digits counting from the right: 2,312; 58,998; 4,216,300.

In manuscript type dashes as two hyphens with no space before or after. Keep usage to a minimum.

Ellipses Use ... for ellipses (3 periods, no spaces between periods). Use space around an ... ellipsis when
indicating omission of one or more words, no spaces around ellipses when indicating omission of

letter(s) within a word. Complete sentences followed by an ellipsis should retain ending punctuation

followed by a space and three dots, i.e. four dots altogether, the last being the period.
Family Generations A name suffix indicating a family generation does not get punctuation if it is numeric: John J. Smith III.
"Jr." is set off by a commas: Alfred P. Jones, Jr.
Hyphens See section on HYPHENATION.

In Business Names Do not use a comma before "Inc." in the name of a business.

In Entry Titles See section on ENTRY TITLES.

Metric and English See section on MEASUREMENTS.


Missing Periods Check for periods missing at the ends of sentences and for terminal periods mistyped as commas.

Parentheses Use parentheses in the text only if absolutely necessary. In general do not place a parenthetical
statement that forms a complete sentence within another sentence.

See also Same Category Numbers.

Quotation Marks In the text, quotation marks are used around words discussed as words: The term "proletariat."
Spacing with Capi- Initial capital letters in proper names are not separated by space: N.K. Piksanov. This applies to both

tal Letters the text and bibliography.

Titles of Books and Use periods, not colons or commas, to separate parts of compound titles. For consistency apply this

Articles rule even when the actual title uses a colon.

Extracted Material Extracted material, e.g., a document, is treated the same as text, with quotes added.
General Entries should not contain quotations of more than a sentence or two. Build quotes into the text. Block

quotes will not be used.

Source A quote must have a source and that source must be cited.

The use of "References:" as a subhead for an entry is prohibited with the exception that it should be

used in place of the subhead "Bibliography:" in entries containing the subhead "Works:". (This

exception primarily applies to MERSL.)

Transliterated Titles
Transliterated Russian and other titles follow the convention of the culture in question: Central State
Archive for Literature and Art (Tsentral'nyi gosudarstvennyi arkhiv literatury i iskusstva). Note that the





acronym in this and a large number of similar instances is formed from the initial letters of the trans-

literated Russian version: TsGALI.

Former Soviet Republics Use old spelling for era before new republics formed. Thereafter use the English form adopted by the

new republics.

In Text "See also" is placed within the text to direct the reader to a fuller treatment of a topic that the article treats briefly or to another entry that is related to the topic of the article. Type as "See also," entries in all caps. Do not place in parentheses. Follow with a period.

Subhead "See also" can be used as a separate subhead of an article to direct the reader to other entries

related to the topic of the article. If used as a subhead it should be placed after the main text, any

other subhead, and just before the bibliography. Multiple references should be in the alphabetic order

of the titles as they appear in the encyclopedia. Type as "See also." No capital A, no colon, regular text (no italic), multiple items separated by semicolons if a list, by commas if a sentence.
Cross Reference
"See" is used with an entry title only to guide the reader to information under the primary title.


ExampleAlternate AACHEN. See AIX LA CHAPELLE. (Note period after the referenced title.)

In Text Use "see" to guide readers to relevant information found in an entry with a different title. Also use

"see" to indicate alternative spellings, names, titles, translations or transliterations of non-English
words to identify entries appearing in translated form. Type as "See," entries in all caps.

Source and Use Contributors are encouraged to suggest such instructions and the editor will insert cross-references
as frequently as possible.
Within Entries When used within the text to specify an entry print in all caps, Type as "See", do not place in parentheses, follow with a period. Do not italicize.

See section on CONTRIBUTORS.




Alternate Spelling The alternate spelling of a word in the title should be in the text immediately following the title line. It

should not be inserted into the title and it should not be on the title line.

American Use American, not British spelling. When in doubt consult Webster's and Chicago.

Plurals of Acronyms Use a lowercase "s" without an apostrophe to form the plural of most acronyms. Use the apostrophe
only if the acronym ends in "s."

Plurals of Proper Use an "s" or an "es" (without an apostrophe) to form the plural of a proper name: the Joneses; the

Names Smiths; the Golunovs; the Kostenkos; the Katkovs.
Possessives of an To form the possessive of an acronym or abbreviation, use an apostrophe and a lowercase roman

Acronym or Ab- "s."

Possessives of Sin- Possessives of singular proper nouns ending in "s" should be formed using " 's": Dickens's novel.
gular Proper

Standard Subheads
Standard subheads that could appear in a variety of entries include:
Bibliography: (Must be used unless "References" is used.)



References: (Only used when "Works" is used.)


See Also:

Works: (Only used when "References" is used.)

Standard Subheads Standard subheads are written in italics, the first letter of each word is capitalized, they are indented

Misc. from the left margin by one pica, and they are followed by a colon.

Text Subheads Text subheads are used for logical subdivisions of a particular article. They are specific to that article.

Text Subheads An entry about a group of people could be subdivided as follows:
Example of an

Entry About a

Group of People Demography.

Bibliography: (Note: this is a Standard Subhead,)

Text Subheads An entry about a geographic location could be subdivided as follows:

Example of an

Entry About a

Place Geography.
Architecture and Historic Buildings.
Museums and Libraries.


Commerce, Employment, and Industry.


Media and Entertainment.

Churches and Religions.




Bibliography: (Note: this is a Standard Subhead.)

Text Subheads Text subheads are written in roman (same type as the title of the entry), the first letter of principal

Misc words is capitalized, they are flush left, and are followed by a period and typed in bold. Do not punctuate a text subhead if it is used as a column head, unless an abbreviation is being used.

Use Subheads are used to organize an entry and to help the reader.

Do not use "bullets" or other symbols in place of numbering, except, rarely, in Soviet Armed Forces

Review Annual (SAFRA), USSR Facts and Figures Annual (UFFA), and Chinese Facts and Figures

Annual (CHIFFA).

Percent The word percent is used in place of the symbol "%."


Military Do not use the twenty-four hour (military) system of expressing time.

O'Clock The use of "o'clock" is acceptable only if there is absolutely no doubt as to whether "a.m." or "p.m." is meant.

Never use "o'clock" with "a.m.," "p.m," or figures.





Standard Time is shown by numerals and the appropriate a.m. or p.m. designation. Note the use of lowercase
letters in the following examples: 7:15 p.m.; 4:35 a.m. Do not use at the beginning of a sentence.


Capitalization of See section on CAPITALIZATION.
Entry Titles See section on ENTRY TITLES.


Non-English Lan- In the text the title of a foreign language book or article is first given in English. It is followed by the

guage Books, transliterated or original language title in parentheses with the date. E.g. An Old Liberal (Staryi liberal,

Periodicals, and 1886).

Transliterate from Russian except for long-standing accepted English spelling of geographic terms
and proper names.

In Bibliographies In the bibliographies use "ia," "ie," and "e" at the beginning of and within a word; i.e. strict LC system except ligatures. Soft signs are retained in the bibliography.

In Text In the text at the beginning of words use modified LC system: "ya," "yu," and "ye." "Ye" is "ie" when preceded by a soft sign.
Proper Names At the end of proper names use "y" and "oy:" Yaroslavsky, Tolstoy. In text.

System Used Otherwise use the Library of Congress transliteration system within words except in text drop all ligatures and omit hard and soft signs (except that a soft sign preceding the "e" is rendered as "i").


See section on MEASUREMENTS.


Placement The "Works" subdivision of an entry is placed immediately after the text and preceding "See," "See

Also," and "References" subdivisions. The subhead would appear in an entry as follows:

ENTRY TITLE (date). Identification line.

First paragraph of text, followed by second, and so on.
Works: After last paragraph of text.

See Also: If used.

References: Title for subsection used only with "Works" and follows the rules given for the


Author's Signature

Rules for See section on SUBHEADS.
Use of The "Works" subhead is a standard subdivision of an entry used to list the works of the person who is

the subject of the entry. For example, in an entry about Shakespeare the Works section would include

Hamlet, MacBeth, Othello, etc.

Addresses and
When addresses are given in the text they should be complete, including ZIP codes. E.g. The
and Zip Codes Military Press, located at 1320 Moss Boulevard in Saginaw, Michigan 48602, is noted for . Do not include ZIP codes when giving a general location. E.g. The University of West Florida in Pensacola, Florida is a four-year

Animals When writing about animals and reference is made to the animal do not use "he," "she," or "it." It is against AIP policy to use such terminology. Avoid the problem and write around it.

Dating Material Avoid dependency on the date of publication of the article. Expressions such as "the current

chairman" are only valid when written and are meaningless ten years later.

Statistical data must be current. Data extracted from references that were published in the 1960s and

1970s is probably out of date.
Check and recheck "open" dates. If a person is shown as living or an organization still functioning,



check the date of the source of the information. If the reference is not current the "open" may be


Use "Born 12 October 1577" not "on 12 October 1577."

Language Because AIP encyclopedias are consulted extensively by readers throughout the world, use a simple,
traditional, direct, and concise style that is free of jargon, technical language, or of terms or forms of

address that are confined to popular, oral, fashionable, or advocacy usage. Traditional language is

required for a scholarly work such as an encyclopedia. Note, in particular, that the language of
scholars is spelled correctly and traditionally, not as some modernists advocate and publish. All
words that are contained in a dictionary are not necessarily appropriate for an encyclopedia. On the
rare occasion when a popular or slang expression is used, the meaning must be explained to the
Limited Use Words Do not use the phrases "such as," "for example," etc. more than once in an entry or on a page.
and Phrasing
Keep the use of foreign terms to an absolute minimum.

Military Equipment In the text, when writing about military equipment (or similar items) they must be identifed at first
mention in their original manner. Any further identifier is placed in parentheses immediately following.
E.g. for a Russian aircraft: Su22 (NATO: Flogger). Use the original term in subsequent text. In the

exceptional situation where the NATO term is used, it is written without punctuation, i.e. quotation
Names in Text Obtain and use the full name, including middle, of any person mentioned in the article and use it at
first mention. After the full name is cited, use the last name only. A nickname, properly associated
with the full name, may be mentioned subsequently only once in the article. Do not use first names only except when all of the first names have the same family name. E.g. He had five children; Thomas, Richard, Harold, Lawrence, and Mary Smith.

Offensive Com- Avoid language that could be construed as offensive to groups or individuals, domestic and foreign.
parisons and
Ethnocentric comparisons detract from international appeal and may be offensive. Don't use "unlike

his American counterpart," "to rainfall in Colorado" and similar phrases.
AIP encyclopedias are used throughout the world. This must be kept in mind at all times.
Parentheses The use of parentheses in the text is basically prohibited. If the information is worth writing it should
be placed in the text in its own sentence.

Precision in Writing Observe the distinction between "that" (restrictive) and "which" (nonrestrictive). Note, for example, the

difference in meaning in the following sentences:
Turn left at the third house that has green shutters.

Turn left at the third house, which has green shutters.
Prohibited Words Avoid advocacy, forecasting, and speculation.

and Phrasing

Rhetorical writing is not in the style of an encyclopedia.

Do not use the conditional phrasing such as "would constitute"
Contractions are not acceptable. Use "although," not "though," "until" not " 'til;" "cannot," not "can't."

"With" at the beginning of a sentence is strictly taboo: "With the beginning of the war"

Avoid using the following words. They tend to create a casual attitude and an encyclopedia is formal

and scholarly.

also furthermore ironically therefore thus

further however moreover though undoubtedly
Pseudonyms Pseudonyms, maiden names, aliases, and birth names should be entered in the text immediately

following the title and identification line. They are not part of the entry title.

Note that nicknames and informal names are not subject to this rule.

Quotes A quote used in the text must have a source. No footnote. Write in or put in parentheses or brackets.
Reader Considera- Always assume that the reader is not familiar with any foreign language or has a limited English

tion language capacity.

Rewrite to avoid awkward and artificial forms.

Avoid use of "he/she" and the like in favor of the traditional "he."





Reorganize longer entries and those that are complicated because they contain technical informa- tion, as necessary. Use subheads. For examples see section in subheads.

Encyclopedia entries concerning similar subject matter should be similarly organized. The same

information should be presented in the same manner for topics in the same category. For instance,

entries dealing with aircraft, personalities, institutions, and so forth should have the same perfor-

mance information, physical description, biographical data, etc, in the same sequence.
The importance of a prominent figure may not be recognized when first mentioned in the text.
Assume that the reader knows nothing and provide information that will help comprehension.
E.g.part of Marshall's (US Secretary of State George C. Marshall, dates) proposal

Important personages and institutions mentioned in the text need dates. Dates are also desirable for
the less important. Do not assume that a reader twenty years from now will have any knowledge of
today's general information.

Repetition Avoid repetition of the same words or phrases, particularly in the same sentence or paragraph.
Avoid the tendency to repeat descriptive wording from an entry on a similar subject. This is noticeable particularly when entries are in close proximity to each other.
Style Use fairly short declarative sentences, frequent paragraphing (at least one paragraph on each

manuscript page), simple punctuation, and the simple past tense.

Avoid split infinitives, dashes, italics for emphasis, and parenthetical insertions.

Normally sentences should not contain more than one subordinate clause and verb forms should be
grouped together.

Be sure that pronouns such as "she," "he," "it," "they," and "this" have clear antecedents.

Rewrite to avoid ambiguity. For example, the sentence "Many authors seek in vain to impress their
readers, leaving us wondering whether they will ever be satisfied" should be rewritten to make it clear

to whom "they" is referring.

In the text delete "the" before the name of a ship unless it is totally awkward: "Seeing defeat,
Chesapeake's captain jumped overboard." "The whaleboat approached Chesapeake."
Maintain verb integrity. Examples: "also can be accomplished," not "can also be", was directly involved (Avoid (not AIP style)) directly was involved (Correct) was involved directly (Correct)

Each volume must have a list of abbreviations. Do not delete items for each volume, it is too much work. Just add new ones. Abbreviations for frequently used sources are encouraged and, if used, are listed with a separate title that clearly identifies them.

Date in Title Each entry title must have a date. Infrequent exceptions will be tolerated.

General AIP annuals are intended to be very similar in format and style.

Page Count Each volume is targeted at 400 pages, plus or minus 20 pages.

Selected Bibliography Is a list of additional sources of material that is related to the subject. Generally it is placed at the end of a chapter. Note that the term "selected" is not used in the Chicago meaning. AIP rules apply with regard to form, information required, and so on.

Sources Avoid use of FBIS and similar citations even though material may have been obtained from such. Note in the Preface that some material may be found in FBIS, or any other that was used. Cite original source of information. If entry is scanned in do not change the format of the information or citation. Let the scan-in stay as in the original. This lends authenticity to the information.

Text Leave original text, whether keyed in or scanned in, as it appears, Text generated by the editor must follow standard AIP style. Proof reading for the accuracy of the text keyed in is the responsibility of the editor.




Acronyms, Abbreviations, Each volume must carry such a list.

Special Term Lists Do not delete items for each volume. Too much work. Just add new ones.

Chapter Organization Chapter numbers are arabic, in Contents printed to left of the text block, in book as "Chapter 2", centered.



Each chapter consists of (1) title, (2) introduction, (3) documents preceded by a headnote.

No sub-introductions.

Documents are not numbered in any way, in Contents or in text.

No editorial material is inserted between documents in a chapter except for a headnote.

All editorial material must appear only in (1) general introduction, (2) introductions to chapters, (3) headnotes, (4) footnotes.

Consistency List A CL is mandatory for all terms, capitalizations, translations, acronyms beginning with Vol. 1 and for all new items in all volumes. Includes word order. The purpose is obvious. Put these in your computer dictionary as you go, and check everything before sending MS to AIP.

Send printout and disk to AIP with each volume.

CLs for all document series and encyclopedias will be checked against each other to arrive at a general CL for AIP books.

Document Title Each document must have (1) a title, (2) author, (3) date. A source for each must be given in a headnote or at end of document.

For a document title no italics, quotes or bolds are used except for a book, which is italicized.

Place author on first line, title on second line, date on third line, centered. Exception is USSR Documents Annual which retains present format.

Author may be, e.g., "Pravda Editorial", "USSR Foreign Ministry", "Decree of USSR President".

Footnotes All footnotes are grouped at the end of volumes by chapter, each set numbered 1-50 etc. for each chapter, each set preceded by "Chapter 2" etc. typed flush left.

Elevate footnote numbers in text. Number the text of the actual notes on same line as the text of the note with a period (6.). Two spaces, note begins; i.e., numbers are left of the text block, not elevated.

Double space. Do not skip lines.

Use "Chapter 2, Note 6" format when referring to a note.

Format for Translator When a translator is listed the format is: article, etc., source (1 January 1992). Translated by J.L.


Sources are cited, wherever they appear, and with the same information, as per AIP Style Sheet above.

Cite all sources mentioned in introductions and headnotes in the same format each time for consistency and reader understanding, within and in each volume of the series.

Add these formats to your CL authors, short titles, etc.

Cite books and articles by author in intros and head and footnotes after full citation at first mention, documents by short title.

All citations in editorial materials must be identifiable easily when cited in any bibliography or sources cited section.

General AIP document series are designed to be very similar in format and style.

Long Quotes When used in editorial matter, treat as regular text with quote marks. Do not indent or skip lines.

Personal, Always cite first name, middle initial, last name at first mention in intros, headnotes, footnotes,

Institutional Names bibliography. Impossible in some cases, but rarely.

For institutions use formal name.

For Russian names, first two initials OK.

For Chinese and other names, give formal full name in that language.

Russian Language Drop all apostrophes for hard and soft signs in all editorial matter. Retain only for formal bibliographical citations.

Selected Bibliography Generally this would appear after a footnote or source citation and lists additional, related material. Note that the term "selected" is not used in the Chicago meaning. AIP rules apply with regard to form, information, and so on.



FOR EDITORS OF encyclopedias 23


Sources Avoid FBIS etc. references. Instead, note in Preface that "some items may be found in FBIS or CDSP" or some such general formulation. This saves space, labor, and avoids pointing to heavy reliance on such sources.

Cite original source of publication.

Sources are cited (1) at the end of a document or (2) in the headnote.

Style Italics for books and names of ships only in editorial materials. Journals, newspapers not italicized. Same applies in a footnote when a mention, not a formal bibliographical citation.

Acronyms such as FRUS are not italicized.

First paragraph of introductions and headnotes is typed flush left. Indent following paragraphs.

Document authors. Upper/lower case for all, except acronyms, including institutions.

Use consistent terms. Don't use, e.g., "USSR Presidential Decree" and "Decree of USSR President" interchangeably.

Use periods, not colons, in compound titles everywhere, including bibliographies.

Dash. Use a dash (--) not a hyphen (-) in all "Ed."s.

Ampersand. Do not use with multiple authors. Use commas.

Translator and other credits attached to a document. Spell out. Thus, "Translated by Roy P. Hess." preceded by a period and no parens, brackets or quotes.

Table of Contents Each volume must include a TC numbered according to MS page numbers.

TC must include and match exactly the title of each document in the text.

Indent second lines.

Double space. Use all lines.

Sequence is author, comma, title, period, date, no period. No parens or brackets. For descriptive material (see below) use date, period, descriptive words, no period.

Do not use dots across to page numbers.

Place page numbers in a column to right after end of the text block.

Any descriptive material attached to a document title appears in TC only, not on the document, and follows the date, no parens, quotes, brackets, 2-3 words only.

Documents are not numbered.

No italics, bolds or quotes, except book titles (italics).

Place chapter number to left of text block. Place chapter title on same line at left margin of text block. Use upper/lower letters.

Word Count Each volume must have the same number of pages ± 15-20 pages. Target is 400 pages per volume, or length of your first volume, trending to the target. This allows uniform spine and appearance.

Official documents are stressed. The targeted 400 pages requires approximately 283,400 words (which typeset at slightly more than 708 words per page in 8 point type). This equates to approximately 944 typescript pages with 25 typed lines per page in 10 point pitch (300 words per page). If illustrations are used, adjustment is necessary.

FOR EDITORS OF encyclopedias


General AIP encyclopedias are intended to be very similar in format and style. Each volume should have the same number of pages ± 3­4 pages. The target is 247 printed pages of text and 8 pages of front matter per volume.

Word Count The targeted 247 pages of text requires approximately 139,420 words of 562 words per printed page in 10 point type. This equates to approximately 464 typescript pages with 25 lines per page in 10 point pitch (300 words per page), absolutely no partial pages and no lines skipped.

If illustrations are used, adjustments are necessary.

The manuscripts of volumes must end with two or three short entries to allow for miscalculations. To be safe, always submit ten pages extra of short entries.





Nov 1993 Bib Example

Additional examples added to Edited and Translated By section.

Newpaper citation example corrected.

Additional example added to Periodical citation to handle monthly periodicals.

P. 5 Unknown Date/Place of Publication subsections added to Bibliographies to Encyclopedia Entries section.

P. 12 Title of section changed to reflect addition of Maps/Illustrations instructions.

P. 13 New subsections, Maps/Illustrations, Permissions, Quality, and Page Numbering, added.

P. 17 Instructions added to "In Text" subsection of "See Also Entries" section.

Within Entries subsection added to "See Entries" section.

Instructions added to "In Text" subsection of "See Entries" section.

P. 20 Addresses and Zip Codes subection added to Writing Style section.

Animals subsection added to Writing Style section.

Names in Text subsection added to Writing Style section.

P. 22 For Editors of Annuals Series section added.

P. 22- For Editors of Documents Series section reordered into alphabetical

24 sequence.

P. 23 Selected Bibliography subsection added to For Editors of Documents Series section.

Nov 1995 P. 4 Last line of "Punctuation" changed from "(Los Angeles, 1994, 397­403" to "(Los Angeles, 1994), 397­403."

Jan 1996 P. 1 Changed spelling from "Tltles of Books and Articles" to "Titles of Books and Articles."

Feb 1996 P. 18- Formatted the standard and text subheadings on pp. 18, 19 as they should

19 appear in a published encyclopedia.

July 1996 Cover Contents. Add Stylesheet Changes, 24, and Quick Reference Consistency List, 26.

P. 1 Abbreviations, Abbreviations with Numbers. Change period to comma, add "except when mm (millimeter) is used to denote size of gun, cannon, or artillery."

P. 4 Bibliographies to Encyclopedia Entries

Punctuation. "Example semi-colons: in list bibliography." changed to"Example, semi-colon:".

Missing commas and end parentheses added.

Bold type, except for "comma" and "semi-colon" deleted.

"N.Y." changed to "New York."

Reprints. This subsection should read "Cite original work. Do not list reprints."

P. 5 Page contents rearranged to read vertically.

Format. Line 2. ", pages" added at end of line.

Line 5. Delete [close up if no pages].

Lines 2­9. Semi-colons at end of all lines.

Line 10. Period at end of line.

Bibliographic Examples

Instructions incorporated in Examples section have been printed in bold type for increased visibility.

Book. Isahakian example added to show translation of title.

First Commager example, delete period after 9th ed.





Second Commager added to show multiple volume variants.

Jones example added to show authorship of a selection within a book.

Dates in Titles. Subsection added with one example.

Encyclopedia. Zirin example added.

Forewords, Introductions. Subsection added with two examples.

Journal. Grossman example. Delete ("Vol." is optional. See line 6 above, preferred. See "Volume" next page.).

Sayles example. Arizona spelling corrected. "no." changed to "No.".

P. 9 Entry Titles, Acronyms. Deleted hyphen in "Agriculture Policies."

P. 11 Hyphenation, Cardinal Numbers. Change period to semi-colon, add "18- to 20-year olds."

Line Justification. Subsection moved to Manuscript Preparation, page 14.

P. 13 Italics, In Text. Line added. "The Russian Law, The Primary Chronicle, etc. are documents, not books, hence not italicized."

P. 14 Manuscript Preparation. Subsections added. "Dashes," "Hyphenation," and "Line Justification."

P. 15 Numbers. Subsections added. "Millimeters" and "Roman numerals."

Punctuation. Add subsection "Apostrophe in Expressions of Duration."

P. 16 Punctuation, Dashes. Add the following sentence. "Keep usage to a minimum."

P. 17 "See Also" Entries, In Text. Delete "Printed in small caps." In its place add "Type as 'See also,' entries in all caps."

Subhead. Change last period to a comma and add "no capital A, no colon, regular text (no italic), multiple items separated by semicolons if a list, by commas if a sentence."

"See" Entries. ExampleAcronym. Add period after 1980.

ExampleAlternate Names. Add period after CHAPELLE. Material in parentheses should read "Note period after the referenced title."

In Text. Delete "Printed in small caps." In its place add "Type as 'See,' entries in all caps."

Within Entries. Change "small" to "all." Add at the end, "Do not italicize."

P. 21 For Editors of Annuals Series, Sources. In last line change "is" to "in."

Text. Change "gnerated" to "generated."

P. 22 For Editors of Document Series, Selected Bibliography. Change "Nate" to "Note," and "Cicago" to "Chicago."

Style, Sixth sentence. Change comma after bibliographies to a period and delete rest of sentence.

Seventh sentence. Remove space between two hyphens (--).

Feb 1997 P. 5 Bibliography Examples. Add the following subhead between Journal and Newspaper.

Multiple Volumes François Auguste René, Viscount de Chateaubriand, Travels in America and Italy, 2 vols., Vol. 1 (London, 1828), 230-233.


Eugene F. Bliss, trans. and ed., Diary of David Zeisberger, A Moravian Missionary among the Indians of Ohio, 2 vols. (Cincinnati, 1885), 1:190, 334; 2:267.

Sept 1997 P. 13 Italics. In Text. First sentence should read, "In the text italics are used for book titles and names of ships only."

P. 21 Style. Sixth paragraph. Italicize the word Chesapeake.

P. 23 After "Italics for books," add the phrase "and names of ships."











Army, the White, Red, Russian

Chronicle, Primary, ital

Civil War, the

Communist Party officials

communist, s


Empire, the Russian

empire, the

Erenburgnot Ehrenburg

Factory, the Triangle

fairy tales

Five Year Planthe, first

Frankfurt a. M.

guberniause province

Herzennot Russ. Gertzen

Ibid. no ital,.

Imaginism, ists

In Morning (Baku, 1953. Russian: Utrom)

In Morning (Sahel, Baku, 1953. Russian: Utrom)

Kratkaia literaturnaia entsiklopediia

partydo not cap

Partyuse Communist Party

Paterikonno ital

Revolution, the, Bolshevik, etc.

River, the Volga

Röhrich, N.not Russ. Rerikh


Schlüsselbergnot Russ. Shlisselburg

Social Democratic Workers Party

Socialist Realism

socialist-realist flavor etc.

Struvenot Russ Shtruve

Thaw, the

The Flood(Dashgryn. Russian: Utro)


uezduse district

White Sea Canalnot Russian



ACADEMIC INTERNATIONAL PRESS · POB 1111 · Gulf Breeze · Florida · 32562


september 1997



The main thing to realize about this Style Sheet is that Academic International Press has gone to the Chicago manual, 13th edition, with a few exceptions. This Style Sheet replaces various AIP style sheets.

The various AIP style sheets have been checked against Chicago and incorporated into this Style Sheet.

This Style Sheet is essentially a short guide to Chicago covering the problems most frequently encountered in AIP publications, especially the encyclopedias. In some cases, though, resort still must be made to Chicago.

The AIP exceptions are shown on page 1.

This Style Sheet will be used at AIP to edit all manuscripts.

If something appropriate to this "Short Chicago'' has been overlooked, please tell us.

























FOR EDITORS OF Annuals series 21












Select Bibliographies use Chicago, 426