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  • 1987 The Gorbachev Reforms Contents
  • 1988 Perestroika-The Second Stage Contents
  • 1989 The End of Empire? Contents
  • 1990 Vol. 1 Restructuring Perestroika Contents
  • 1990 Vol. 2 Restructuring Perestroika Contents
  • 1991 Vol. 1 Disintegration of the USSR Contents
  • 1991 Vol. 2 Disintegration of the USSR Contents
  • 1992 Vol. 1 The Russian Federation Contents
  • 1992 Vol. 2 CIS and Successor States Contents
  • 1993 Vol. 1 The Russian Federation Contents
  • 1993 Vol. 2 Central Eurasian States Contents
  • 1994 Vol. 1 The Russian Federation Contents
  • 1994 Vol. 2 Central Eurasian States Contents
  • 1995 Vol. 1 The Russian Federation Contents
  • 1995 Vol. 2 Central Eurasian States Contents
  • 1996 Vol. 1 The Russian Federation Contents
  • 1996 Vol. 2 Central Eurasian States Contents

 

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Russia and Eurasia Documents Annual 1993

(Formerly USSR Documents Annual)

Volume 1 The Russian Federation

Table of Contents

Introduction

Chapter 1 Government

  1. Introduction 1
  2. Russian Federation Emblem (30 Nov) 3
  3. Russian Federation Law, On the Russian Federation Council of Ministers-Government (22 Dec 1992) 3
  4. Council of Ministers-Government of the Russian Federation Decree, On Questions Relating To Organizing the Activity of the Council of Ministers-Government of the Russian Federation (28 Jan) 13
  5. Statute on the Apparatus of the Council of Ministers-Government of the Russian Federation (28 Jan) 14
  6. President of Russia Draft Agreement Between the Federal Legislative and Executive Bodies of the Russian Federation on Stabilizing the Constitutional System Pending the Adoption of a New Constitution of the Russian Federation (Abridged) (19 Feb) 16
  7. President of the Russian Federation Decree, Improvement of the System of Support for the Activity of the Russian Federation President (22 Feb) 17
  8. President of the Russian Federation Decree, On Reform of Local Self-Government in the Russian Federation (26 Oct) 19
  9. Staute on the Fundamentals of the Organization of Local Self-Administrationin the Russian Federation for the Period of Stage-by-Stage Constitutional Reform (26 Oct) 20
  10. Constitution of the Russian Federation [July and December] (12 Dec) 21
  11. Izvestiia and Sovetskaia Rossiia View the End of the Year in Political Caricature (31 Dec) 45

Chapter 2 National Laws and Decrees

  1. Introduction 47
  2. Russian Federation Law, On Introducing Changes and Additions to the USSR Law, "On Privatizing Housing in the RSFSR" (20 Dec 1992) 47
  3. Russian Federation Law, On the Right of Citizens of the Russian Federation to Acquire as Private Property and to Sell Tracts of Land to Conduct Private Subsidiary Farming and Dacha Economies, Horticulture, and Private Housing Construction (23 Dec 1992) 48
  4. Russian Federation Supreme Soviet Decree, On Reviewing Again the Law of the Russian Federation, "On the Right of Citizens of the Russian Federation to Acquire as Private Property" (23 Dec 1992) 49
  5. Russian Federation Supreme Soviet Decree, On Procedure for Enacting the Law of the Russian Federation, "On the Right of Citizens of the Russian Federation to Acquire as Private Property..." (23 Dec 1992) 49
  6. Russian Federation Law, On Changes and Additions to Laws of the RSFSR "On State Pensions in the RSFSR", and "On the Tax on Property Transferred as an Inheritance or a Gift," and to Russian Federation Laws "On the State Duty", "On the Tax on Enterprises Property", "On the Value-Added Tax", and "On the Income Tax on Physical Person" (6 Mar) 50
  7. Russian Federation Law, On the Customs Tariff (21 May) 54
  8. Russian Federation Supreme Soviet Resolution, On Repeat Consideration of the Russian Federation Law, "On the Customs Tariff" (21 May) 65
  9. Supreme Soviet of the Russian Federation Resolution, On the Procedure for Enacting the Law of the Russian Federation "On State Secrets" (21 Jul) 65
  10. Law of the Russian Federation, On State Secrets (21 Jul) 66

Chapter 3 The Political Scene
Introduction 79

    Political Crisis, I. Constitutional Reform and Referendum, January-25 April 86

    1. Ruslan Khasbulatov, The Congress of People's Deputies and Constitutional Reform (9, 10 Jan) 86
    2. Russian Federation Supreme Soviet Decree, On Measures to Ensure the Holding of an All-Russian Referendum, 11 April 1993 (14 Jan) 94
    3. Anna Ostapchuk, The Constitutional Court Calls Politicians Together. The "Interparty Gathering" as an Institution for Influencing Political Processes (16 Jan) 95
    4. Igor Kharichev, Attitudes Toward the Referendum. Positions of Parties and Movements in the Russian Federation (28 Jan) 96
    5. President of the Russian Federation Directive, On Measures to Support the All-Russia Referendum of 11 April 1993, Plus Appendix (2 Feb) 98
    6. M.S. Gorbachev, If the Authorities Keep Their Promises to the People, They Should Not Be Afraid of New Elections (3 Feb) 99
    7. Aleksandr Samovarov, He Has the Ways of the Tiger. A Portrait of Ruslan Khasbulatov (4 Feb) 102
    8. Mikhail Gorbachev, Moment of Choice (7 Feb) 104
    9. Ruslan Khasbulatov, Statements on the Referendum (8 Feb) 105
    10. Alexandr Rutskoi, There Is Still a Chance to Make the Right Decision (9 Feb) 107
    11. Boris Yeltsin, Speech at a Constitutional Commission Session in Moscow (9 Feb) 108
    12. Valerii Kirpichnikov, The Center's Tough Hand is Incapable of Saving the Country from Collapse (19 Feb) 111
    13. Aleksei Kolesov, The Revolutionary Situation May Develop in a Dictatorship (23 Feb) 112
    14. Aristarkh Vladimirov, Coalition Will Enter the Neo-Conservative Political Bloc (2 Mar) 114
    15. Alevtina Fedulova, We Would Like Attention [Union of Russian Women] (6 Mar) 115
    16. Russian Federation Congress of People's Deputies Resolution, On Measures to Implement Constitutional Reform in the Russian Federation (On the Decree of the Seventh Congress of Russian Federation People's Deputies, "On Stabilizing the Russian Federation Constitutional System") (12 Mar) 117
    17. Russian Federation Congress of People's Deputies Resolution, On the All-Russian Referendum (13 Mar) 118
    18. People's Deputies Petition to Constitutional Court (16 Mar) 119
    19. President Boris Yeltsin, TV Speech on Special Regime of Government (20 Mar) 120
    20. Ruling of the Russian Federation Constitutional Court on Compliance with the Russian Federation Constitution of the Actions and Decisions of Russian Federation President B.N. Yeltsin, connected with his Address to the Citizens of Russia on 20 March 1993 (23 Mar) 124
    21. President of the Russian Federation, Decree on Government (24 Mar) 127
    22. Leonid Mamut, The Country Cannot Live by an Unconstitutional Constitution (26 Mar) 129
    23. Decree of the Congress of Russian Federation People's Deputies, On the All-Russian Referendum 25 April, the Procedure for Summing Up its Results, and the Mechanism for Implementing the Results of the Referendum (29 Mar) 131
    24. Congress of Russian Federation People's Deputies Decree, On Urgent Measures to Preserve the Russian Federation's Constitutional System (29 Mar) 133
    25. Questions To Be Asked on the 25 April Referendum (30 Mar) 134
    26. How We Vote. Sovetskaia Rossiia's Rehearsal for the Referendum 134

    The Communists

    1. Boris Slavin, What is Preventing the Communists from Uniting (21 Jan) 135
    2. Anna Ostapchuk, Communists Emerging From Underground. Opportunists Will Become Bolsheviks, Flaming Revolutionaries Will Remain in the Minority (2 Feb) 136
    3. Aleksandr Frolov, It Is For Communists to Decide (4 Feb) 138
    4. Russian Federation Communist Party Congress (14 Feb) 139
    5. Russian Federation Communist Party, Political Statement (15 Feb) 139
    6. Aleksandr Frolov, There Is Such a Party (16 Feb) 140
    7. Communist Party of the Russian Federation Central Committee. We Are the Party of the Fatherland. Letter to Communists On the Role of the CPRF in Russia's Political Life (7 Sep) 144

    Political Crisis, II. Constitutional Reform, "Bloody Sunday," and Elections, September-December

    1. Russian Federation President Decree, On Extra Measures to Strengthen Law and Order in the Russian Federation (18 Sep) 147
    2. Russian Federation President Decree, On the Execution of the Specific Powers of the Russian Federation President by the Russian Federation Vice President (18 Sep) 149
    3. Russian Federation President Decree, Statute on Federal Organs of Power in the Transitional Period (21 Sep) 149
    4. Russian Federation Constitutional Court Ruling (21 Sep) 152
    5. Russian Constitutional Court Deems Yeltsin Decree Illegal (21 Sep) 153
    6. Appeal by the Russian Federation President-Commander-in-Chief of Russia's Armed Forces (22 Sep) 153
    7. President of the Russian Federation Decree, On the Property of the Russian Supreme Soviet (23 Sep) 154
    8. President of the Russian Federation Decree, On Russian Federation Supreme Soviet Guards (24 Sep) 155
    9. Supreme Soviet Decree, On Keeping the International Public Informed About the Situation in the Russian Federation (22 Sep) 155
    10. Leonid Nikitinskii, For All Of Us There Still Remains a Choice Between Two Democracies (23 Sep) 156
    11. Russian Federation Justice Ministry, Legal Basis for Presidential Decrees on the Constitution (23 Sep) 158
    12. Presidential Directive No. 659-rp, On the Formation of the Public Chamber of the Constitutional Conference (24 Sep) 159
    13. Liudmila Aleksandrova, Congress of People's Deputies Suspend Yeltsin's Powers (24 Sep) 160
    14. Russian Federation President Edict, On Preventing Illegal Proceedings Against Russian Federation Citizens (25 Sep) 160
    15. Nadezhda Garifullina, Blood Will Fall on the Putschists. Ruslan Khasbulatov Answers Questions (27-28 Sep) 161
    16. Grigorii Yavlinskii, The Minimum Collaboration Between Authorities Could Rescue the Situation. An Option for Resolving the Conflict Situation (28 Sep) 163
    17. Political Censorship on TV. "Red Square" Taken Off the Air (28 Sep) 164
    18. Russian Federation State Agencies that Opposed Yeltsin's Action (28 Sep) 165
    19. Ilyumzhinov, President of Kalmykia, et al., Call for a Conference of Local Powers (29 Sep) 165
    20. A Letter from the White House. Ruslan Khasbulatov is Against "Capitulation" (28 Sep) 166
    21. Aleksandr Gamov, Candles Lit in "White House". Forty Minutes Alone with Khasbulatov (28 Sep) 167
    22. V. Zorkin, Stop the Tyranny! (29 Sep) 169
    23. State of Emergency in Moscow. Radio Announcement (3 Oct) 169
    24. Russian Federation President Decree, On Measures to Ensure the State of Emergency Regime in the City of Moscow (4 Oct) 170
    25. Russian Federation President Decree, On Additional Measures to Ensure the State of Emergency in the City of Moscow (4 Oct) 171
    26. Opposition Newspapers Suspended (4 Oct) 173
    27. Yeltsin Television Speech (4 Oct) 173
    28. Russian Federation President Decree, On Investigating the Armed Mutinyin the City of Moscow (7 Oct) 174
    29. Russian Federation President Decree, On Legal Regulation During thePeriod of Stage-by-Stage Constitutional Reform in the Russian Federation (7 Oct) 175
    30. Russian Federation President Decree, On the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation (7 Oct) 177
    31. Russian Federation President Decree, On the Procedures for Appointing and Dismissing Heads of Local Administrative Authorities (7 Oct) 178
    32. Russian Federation President Decree, On the Cessation of the Powers of the Moscow City Soviet of People's Deputies, the Zelenograd Town Soviet of People's Deputies, and Raion Soviets of People's Deputies and Settlement and Village Soviets of People's Deputies in Moscow (7 Oct) 178
    33. Russian Federation President Decree, On the Russian Federation Federal Assembly Apparatus (8 Oct) 179
    34. Russian Federation Decree, On Amendments and Additions to the Statute on Federal Organs of Power for the Transition Period (11 Oct) 179
    35. Russian Federation President Decree, On Reforming Representative Bodies of Power and Local Self-Government in the Russian Federation (9 Oct) 180
    36. Aleksandr Dzybula, Federation Council Election Process (17 Oct) 181
    37. B.N. Yeltsin, Realizing New Opportunities (2 Nov) 182
    38. Boris Yeltsin, As President, I am More Committed than Others to Social Stability (16 Nov) 186
    39. Central Electoral Commission Reports (25 Dec) 192

Chapter 4 Emigration, Refugee Issues, and the Russian Diaspora

The "Nationalities" Issue

  1. Introduction 194
  2. Sergei Yakovlev, You May Come In; You May Go Out (9 Jan) 196
  3. Abdulakh Mikitaev, The Choice of Citizenship Remains With You (19 Jan) 197
  4. Russian Federation Government Decree, Measures in Support of the Right of Citizens of the Russian Federation to Free Travel Beyond its Borders and to Unobstructed Return and for Improving the Procedure for Business Trips Abroad by Workers (28 Jan) 198
  5. Yu. V. Roshchin, Will They Be Warmed by Smoke From the Fatherland? (4 Feb) 199
  6. Igor Andreev, Law on Entry and Exit. The Government Gives the Signal (4 Feb) 200
  7. Sergei Stankevich, We Simply Have No Good Choice to Make... (10 Feb) 202
  8. Yurii Luzhkov, Moscow Believes in Russian Tears in the Baltics (Mar 1993) 205
  9. Number of Russians Within Territories of the Former USSR (Mar) 205
  10. Russian Federation Statute, On the Federal Migration Service of Russia (1 Mar) 206
  11. V. Kuteynikov, How Many Refugees Are There in Russia? (Aug) 210
  12. President of the Russian Federation Decree, On Measures to Introduce Immigration Controls (16 Dec) 210
  13. Russian Federation Supreme Soviet Decree, On Including the State Program for the Economic and Cultural Development of Minority Northern Peoples in 1991-1995 on the List of Federal Special-Purpose Programs (25 Dec 1992) 211
  14. Ramazan Abdulatipov, The Priorities of Russian Statehood (19 Jan) 212
  15. Ramazan Abdulatipov, Sergei Shakhrai, Working Together (29 Jan) 214
  16. Sergei Gerbov, The Mother Asked the Son. Understand the Word "Shop"... (17 Mar) 216
  17. Emil Pain, A Political Dialogue-Is Russia Threatened with the Fate of the USSR? (16 Jun) 218

Chapter 5 The Republics and Territories

  1. Introduction 224
  2. An Interview with Mintimer S. Shaymiev, President of Tatarstan (Nov 1992) 225
  3. Constitution of the Republic of Tatarstan (6 Nov 1992) 231
  4. Government of the Russian Federation Decree, On Urgent Measures for State Support of the Socio-Economic Development of Kalmykia-Khalmg-Tangch (3 Jan) 252
  5. Mintimer Shaymiev, President of Tatarstan, Time Outstrips Laws. Even Fundamental Laws (15 Jan) 253
  6. Union of Cities, Declaration on the Principles of Local Self-Government (21 Jan) 256
  7. Russian Federation President Decree, On Measures for State Support for the Economic and Social Development of the Republic of Adygeya (10 Feb) 258
  8. Speculation Over Referendum Will Lead to Nothing Good. President Mikhail Nikolaev of Sakha (Yakutia) Is in Favor of Uprightness (18 Feb) 260
  9. Nikolai Belyi, How Tynda Quarreled with Yakutia (17 Mar) 262
  10. Russian Federation Presidential Decree, On Imposition of a State of Emergency in a Portion of Prigordnii Raion and Adjoining Areas of the North Ossetian SSR and a Portion of Nazranovskii Raion in Ingush Republic (27 Mar) 263
  11. Supreme Soviet of the Russian Federation Decree, On the Edict of the President of the Russian Federation on Declaring a State of Emergency in Territories Comprising Part of the Prigorodnii District and Adjacent Areas of North Ossetian SSR and Part of the Nazranovskii District of the Ingush Republic (30 Mar) 265
  12. President of the Russian Federation Decree, On the Temporary Administration in Territories Comprising Part of the Prigorodnii District and Adjacent Areas of the North Ossetion SSR and Part of the Nazra-novskii District of the Ingush Republic (30 Mar) 265
  13. Statute on the Temporary Administration in Territories Comprising Part of the Prigorodnii District and Adjacent Areas of the North Ossetian SSR, and Part of the Nazranovskii District of the Ingush Republic (2 Apr) 266
  14. North Caucasus (22 Sep) 268

Chapter 6 The 1991 Coup Revisited

  1. Introduction 268
  2. Valentin Pavlov, Interview (28 Jan) 269
  3. Valentin Pavlov, Interview (2 Feb) 270
  4. M.S. Gorbachev, Let Kriuchkov Show What He Has Gathered (3 Mar) 271
  5. M.S. Gorbachev, Speech at Carleton University (30 Mar) 272
  6. Sovetskaia Rossiia Caricature of Gorbachev (8 May) 274
  7. Valerii Rudnev, State Committee for State of Emergency Case. The
  8. Changes are Presented (14 Oct) 275

Chapter 7 Military and Security Forces

  1. Introduction 276
  2. Boris Yeltsin, The Armed Forces are One of the Guarantors of the Stability of Society. An Interview (23 Feb) 277
  3. Russian Federation President Decree, On the Militia for Public Security (Local Militia) in the Russian Federation (25 Feb) 281
  4. Russian Federation President Decree, On the Conscription of Russian Federation Citizens into Military Service in April-June 1993... (2 Apr) 286
  5. Petr Nikulin, Long Parting From the KGB (9 May) 287
  6. Andrei Kozyrev, Russia Is Bearing the Burden of Actual Peacemaking in Conflicts on the Perimeter of Its Borders Practically Alone. And No One Will Do This For Her (22 Sep) 290
  7. Anatolii Stasovskii, Russian Military Doctrine. New Understanding of Country's Security (4 Nov) 292

Chapter 8 Foreign Policy

  1. Introduction 296
  2. Sergei Stankevich, No Traffic Accident Has Occurred on Our Historical Road (30 Dec 1992) 299
  3. Russian Federation, United States of America, START II Treaty (3 Jan) 302
  4. Stanislav Kondrashov, Bill Clinton and Russia's Problems (18 Jan) 307
  5. Ye. Popov, A Fresh Start. Tomorrow Will See the Inauguration of the 42nd President of the United States-Bill Clinton (19 Jan) 310
  6. Rostislav Gertsev, Georgii Shmelyov, Russian Foreign Policy Priorities (26 Jan) 310
  7. Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation Between the Russian Federation and the Republic of India (28 Jan) 311
  8. USSR/USA Vancouver Declaration (5 Apr) 313
  9. Dmitrii Riurikov, Andranik Migranian, Yeltsin's Line. Who Shapes It and How (18 Jun) 315
  10. M.S. Gorbachev, Cold War Cowboys Buck World Trend (2 Jul) 319
  11. The Tokyo Declaration (13 Oct) 320

Chapter 9 The Economy

  1. Introduction 321
  2. President of the Russian Federation Decree, On the Construction and Operation of Highways on a Commercial Basis (8 Dec 1992) 327
  3. Russian Federation Law On Entering Amendments and Additions in the RSFSR Law, "On Road Funds in the RSFSR" (25 Dec 1992) 328
  4. Edict on the Transformation of Coal Mining Industrial Associations, Enterprises, and Organizations into Joint-Stock Companies and their Privatization (30 Dec 1992) 330
  5. Council of Ministers-Government of the Russian Federation Decree, On State Regulations of Prices of Natural Gas and Other Types of Energy Resources (29 Jan) 333
  6. Russian Federation President Decree, On Measures for Regulating the Procedure for Circulation and Redemption of Privatization Checks (12 Feb) 335
  7. Russian Federation President Statute, On Procedure for Circulation and Cancellation of Privatization Checks (12 Feb) 335
  8. V. Gerashchenko, There Will Be No Monetary Reform (Feb) 339
  9. Leonid Abalkin, To Pause and To Look Around (28 Aug) 341
  10. Council of Ministers and Government of the Russian Federation, On Measures to Ensure Stable Operation of Air, Sea, River and Motor Transport in 1993 (30 Aug) 345
  11. Igor Klochkov, The Trade Unions Will Go All The Way in the Fall (17 Sep) 348
  12. President of Russia Decree, On Improving Work With Foreign Investment (27 Sep) 350
  13. Irina Goriacheva, Early October. Inflation 5 Percent (13 Oct) 351
  14. Russian Federation President Decree, On Measures to Ensure the Rights of Shareholders (28 Oct) 351

      Agriculture

      1. Russian Federation Supreme Soviet Decree, On the State Regulation of Prices of Bread Products and Measures to Form Federal and Regional Grain Funds (17 Dec 1992) 354
      2. Russian Federation Council of Ministers-Government Decree, On Emergency Measures of Financial Support for the Russian Federation Agro-Industrial Complex (23 Jan) 355

       

    Chapter 10 Quality of Life, the Environment, and Crime

    1. Introduction 356
    2. Russian Federation Supreme Soviet Decree, Urgent Measures to Study the Population and Demographic Perspectives of the Russian Federation (22 Dec 1992) 359
    3. Government of the Russian Federation Decree, On Extending the Rights of Particular Central Organs of the Executive Power in the Field of Wages for Civilian Personnel (3 Jan) 360
    4. Government of the Russian Federation Decree, On Introducing a Minimum Wage and Establishing a Monthly Rate (Salary) for Category 1 of the Unified Rate Scale for Wages for Workers in the Budget-Funded Sphere (6 Jan) 361
    5. Edward Andreev, Already, They are Simply Not Paying Us and We Are Simply Not Working-And We Are Not Pretending (9 Jan) 361
    6. Council of Ministers of the Government of the Russian Federation Decree, On Organization of Work for Promoting Employment After Mass Unemployment (5 Feb) 363
    7. Statute on Organization of Work for Promotion of Employment After Mass Layoffs (5 Feb) 364
    8. Russian Federation President Decree, On the Rates of Social Benefits and Compensation Payments for Families with Children and Other Categories of Citizens (9 Feb) 367
    9. Yelena Yudina, Health Is a Category of the Economy (4 Mar) 369
    10. Alevtina Fedulova, A Women is a Person, Too. In the Opinion of the Chairman of the Union of Russian Women There is a Lack of True Information About the Situation of Women in this Country (20 Mar) 371
    11. Russian Federation Law, On the Minimum Wage (30 Mar) 372
    12. Russian Federation President Decree, On Steps to Ensure the Right of Citizens to Housing (9 Apr) 372
    13. Oleg Savelev, What Concerns Muscovites? (22 Sep) 373
    14. Nadezhda Nadezhdina, A View of the Situation-Your Wallet Or Your Life (22 Jan) 373

        Crime and Punishment

        1. Nikolai Modestov, Heartfelt Talks With Grenades in Hand (26 Jan) 375
        2. Igor Baranovskii, Smuggled Foreigners. Over 250,000 Foreigners Have Been Shipped to Western Europe and America in Recent Years Through Russia (18 Feb) 377

    Chapter 11 Media and Intellectual Life

    1. Introduction 381
    2. Russian Federation President Decree, On Conferring on the All-Russian State Television and Radio Broadcasting Company the Status of National Television and Radio Broadcasting Company (19 Jan) 382
    3. The Representative of Readers Will Examine Complaints to the Editor. Izvestiia Journalists Introduce Self-Limits, and Establish Moral Guidelines for Their Behavior (30 Jan) 383
    4. Mikhail Gurevich, One Head of the "Double-Headed Mikhail Fedotov" (6 Feb) 385
    5. Russian Federation President Decree, On Freedom of Information (20 Mar) 387
    6. Russian Federation President Decree, On Minimum Standards for Television and Radio Broadcasting (20 Mar) 387
    7. Russian Federation President Decree, On Guaranteeing Balanced Information and Requirements in Television and Radio Broadcasting (22 Mar) 388
    8. Yelena Vishnevskaia, In Order Not To "Lose" a Generation [of School Children] (25 Mar) 390
    9. Viacheslav Tkachenko, Is Reform Getting to the Classroom? (1 Sep) 392
    10. V. Shelikhov, Main Trends in Subscription Development in the Russian Federation in 1993 (Jul) 393
    11. Banned Newspapers (14 Oct) 396
    12. Russian Federation President Decree, On Improving State Management in the Mass Information Sphere (22 Dec) 396

    Bibliography 398
    Glossary 400
    Indexes

    1. Names 401
    2. Subject 403
    3. Geography and Places 407
    4. Institutions, Ministries, Committees and Councils 408

 

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