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  • 1994 Vol. 2 Central Eurasian States Contents
  • 1995 Vol. 1 The Russian Federation Contents
  • 1995 Vol. 2 Central Eurasian States Contents
  • 1996 Vol. 1 The Russian Federation Contents
  • 1996 Vol. 2 Central Eurasian States Contents


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Russia and Eurasia Documents Annual 1994

(Formerly USSR Documents Annual)

Volume 2 Central Eurasian States

Table of Contents


Introduction 1
Chapter 1 General. Political and Economic Agreements

  1. Agreement on the Creation of Free Trade Zones (15 Apr) 2
  2. Rules for Determining Country of Origin of Goods (15 Apr) 7
  3. Agreement on Re-export of Commodities and the Procedure for Granting Permission for Re-export (15 Apr) 11
  4. The Search for an Effective System of Mutually Settling Accounts… Summary Document of the International Banking Conference (24 Apr) 14
  5. Igor Porshnev, et al., Kozyrev's Report of the Meeting of CIS Council of Foreign Ministers (19 Jul) 17

Chapter 2 Bilateral Agreements

  1. Treaty of Friendship, Good Neighborliness, and Cooperation Between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Georgia (3 Feb) 18
  2. President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, On the Formation of a Eurasian Union of States (Draft Proposal) (7 Jun) 23

Chapter 3 Common Economic Space

  1. Stanislav Yevgenev, The Creation of a New Monetary Union Is Signalled With An Interstate Bank (17 Feb) 29
  2. Aleksandr Kasulin, Commonwealth Roundtable. A Routine Session of the CIS Heads of Government Council Has Been Held in Moscow (10 Sep) 30
  3. Ukrainian Ministers' Statements on the CIS Roundtable (10 Sep) 32
  4. Sanobar Shermatova, Open Markets Behind Closed Doors (30 Oct) 33

Chapter 4 Commentary

  1. Vitalii Portnikov, Power of Individuals or the Face of Power? Sketches for Political Portraits (28 Jan) 35
  2. Suren Zolyan, What Is Good For Russia Is Not Necessarily Acceptable for All (22 Feb) 42
  3. Yakov Plyays, About the Present and Future of the CIS. Notes on the National-State Structure of the Former USSR (3 Mar) 46
  4. Aleksandr Vladislavlev, The Foreign Policy of Russia. Priorities are Directed Towards the CIS (6 May) 48
  5. Konstantin Zatulin, The "Predictable" Kuchma and the "Unpredictable" Lukashenka. Conclusions and Recomendations of the State Duma Committee on CIS Affairs and Relations With Fellow Countrymen on the Results of the Parliamentary Hearings, "On the Emergence of the CIS, Its Current Situation, and Outlook for Development (13 Jul) 52

Part 2


Introduction 55

Chapter 1 Government

  1. Leonid Kravchuk, Interview for the Upcoming Presidential Election (2 Mar) 59
  2. Results of Elections in Ukraine (16 Apr) 64
  3. Vadim Fomenko, Reflections After the Election. Will Old Man Mazay Rescue Political Hares? (22 Apr) 64
  4. Vyacheslav Chornovil, During the First Round We Won Some Back But We Did Not Lose (22 Apr) 66
  5. Cabinet Ministers of Ukraine Statement on Kuchma (13 Apr) 68
  6. The New Parliament. In Anticipation of Compromises? Some Thoughts After the Elections (28 Apr) 71
  7. Oleksandr Moroz, Interview on the Presidential Elections (21 Jun) 74
  8. Leonid Kuchma, Speech at the Supreme Council in Kiev (19 Jul) 75
  9. Yanina Sokolovskaia, Those Who Brought Kuchma to the Presidency Share Power With Him (19 Aug) 78

Chapter 2 National Laws and Decrees

  1. Law of Ukraine, State Budget of Ukraine for the Year 1994 (1 Feb) 80
  2. Law of Ukraine, On Introduction of Changes and Amendments in the Law of Ukrainian SSR "On the Taxation System" (2 Feb) 89

Chapter 3 The Political Scene

  1. Volodymyr Filenko, Anyone Who Does Not Learn From Other Revolutions Will Get His Own (15 Jan) 95
  2. Stepan Khmara, For a Strong, Independent State and a Righteous Regime (27 Jan) 100
  3. Election Platform of the Democratic Forces of Ukraine (10 Feb) 103
  4. Sergei Vasilevich Dovgan, We Will Assume the Responsibility (11 Mar) 109
  5. The Election Platform of the Democratic Party of Ukraine (Mar) 112
  6. The Election Platform of the Socialist Party of Ukraine (Mar) 114
  7. The Election Platform of the Congress of National and Democratic Forces (Mar) 116
  8. Theses of the Election Platform of the Association "Nova Ukraina" (Mar) 118
  9. The Election Platform of the Ukrainian Republican Party (Mar) 119
  10. Ivan Plyushch, On The New Ukrainian Parliament and CIS (10 Apr) 120

Chapter 4 Nationality Issues and Crimea

  1. Congress of National Democratic Forces, Statement On Meshkov's Victory in the Crimea. The Policy of Temporizing Has Turned Out to be the Worst (31 Jan) 122
  2. Ivan Plyushch, I Categorically Disagree with Those Who Compare Zhirinovskii with Meshkov (3 Feb) 122
  3. Yanna Sokolovskaia, Crimea Dreams of Living on Moscow Time (2 Feb) 124
  4. Two Weeks in Power. Republic of Crimea President Yurii Meshkov Answers Moskovskii Komsomolets (19 Feb) 127
  5. Ivan Plyushch, The Donbass is Becoming the Promising Area of Ukraine (2 Jun) 128
  6. Boris Vinogradov, Russia's Ministry of Foreign Affairs Prefers Not to Comment on the Situation in Crimea (13 Sep) 129
  7. Supreme Council of Ukraine Decree, On the Political-Legal Situation in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea (27 Sep) 130
  8. Statute on the Control Commission of the Government of Crimea (16 Nov) 130

Chapter 5 Foreign Policy and the Military

  1. Agreement Between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of Ukraine on the Implementation of the Trilateral Accord Among the Presidents of Russia, the United States and Ukraine of 14 January 1994 (14 Jan) 132
  2. Supreme Council of Ukraine, Resolution on START I Treaty (3 Feb) 133
  3. Vladimir Nadein, The USA is Worried about the Revival of Russian Imperialism and Promises to Take Care of Ukraine (8 Feb) 134
  4. Valentyn Vernodubenko, In Almaty and in Tashkent, We Were Met Halfway (17 Sep) 135
  5. Ukraine and Russia 135
  6. Ivan Drach, Ukraine and Russia. Prospects for Interrelations. Four Theses by the Chairman of the Ukrainian World Coordinating Council (3 Feb) 135
  7. President of Ukraine Decree, On Measures for the Development of Economic Cooperation Between Ukraine Oblasts and Adjacent Border-Zone Oblasts of the Russian Federation (25 Mar) 138
  8. Anatolii Gordeev, Donbass Plebiscites Favor Russian Language (31 Mar) 139
  9. Donbass Plebiscite Official Results (31 Mar) 140
  10. Nikolai Gonchar, From Respectful Dialogue to Agreement (20 Jul) 140
  11. Gennadiy Udovenko, Be Concerned About Ukrainians Just as We Are Concerned About Russians, the New Minister of Foreign Affairs Said on the Eve of a Meeting with Andrei Kozyrev (23 Sep) 143
  12. The Main Issues are the Fleet, Debts, and an Agreement on Friendship (30 Nov) 144

Chapter 6 The Economy

  1. Supreme Council of Ukraine Decree, On Measures to Stabilize the Socio-Economic Situation in Ukraine (23 Dec 1993) 144
  2. Plyushch Views Causes of Economic Crisis (5 Feb) 146
  3. Report of the Ministry of Statistics of Ukraine on Ukraine's Socio- Economic Situation in 1993. "The Prolonged Crisis Continues" (8 Feb) 149
  4. Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine Decree, On Urgent Measures to Provide
  5. Electricity and Heat for the National Economy and the Population During the 1994-1995 Fall and Winter Season (26 Jul) 151
  6. 17 Years-No Problem [World Bank Credits] (30 Dec) 153
  7. Agriculture 153
  8. President of Ukraine Decree, On Urgent Measures to Accelerate Land Reform in the Sphere of Agricultural Production (10 Nov) 153
  9. President of Ukraine Decree, On Measures to Fulfill the Decisions Relating to Economic Reforms in Ukraine (18 Nov) 154

Chapter 7 Quality of Life and the Environment

  1. Volodymyr Oliynyk, The Ukrainian Emigrant. Who is He? (4 Mar) 155
  2. Natalya Lakiza-Sachuk, Will We Go the Way of the Dinosaur? (28 May) 156
  3. Valeriy Malikov, The Special Service is Not Against the Rich. It is Against Criminals (15 Sep) 160

Part 3


Chapter 1 Belarus

  1. Introduction 163
  2. On Planned Unification of the Belarusian and Russian Monetary Systems (5 Jan) 164
  3. Stanislaw Shushkevich, I Am Not Leaving Big-League Politics (30 Jan) 165
  4. Vyacheslaw Kebich, My Main Political Aim Is the Restoration of Economic Union with Russia (5 Feb) 167
  5. Alyaksandr Sychow, United Nations is Currently Experiencing a Renaissance, and We Should Take Advantage of this for the Benefit of Belarus (5 Feb) 170
  6. Presidential Bulletin, The Struggle Against Crime (16 Feb) 174
  7. Vyacheslaw Kebich, Address to Belarusian Supreme Soviet (1 Mar) 174
  8. Republic of Belarus Law, On Presidential Elections in the Republic of Belarus (29 Mar) 180
  9. Vyacheslaw Kebich, Our Position Is Clear (26 May) 196
  10. Vyachaslaw Kebich, Interview on Election Platform (21 Jun) 199
  11. Zyanon Paznyak, Interview on Election Platform (21 Jun) 200
  12. Alyaksandr Lukashenka, Inaugural Address to Supreme Soviet (20 Jul) 202
  13. Dmitrii Vodotynskii, The Attitude of the Inhabitants of Belarus Proved to be by no Means Unequivocal (21 Jul) 203
  14. Aleksandr Bekker, Belarus No Longer Wants the Ruble Union (27 Jul) 205
  15. Alyaksandr Lukashenka, I will not be a Dictator. And that is the Truth. Off-the Record Questions to the President of Belarus (2 Sep) 207
  16. Alyaksandr Lukashenka, I Stand Firmly on My Feet (10 Nov) 210
  17. M. Chyhir, Economic Forecast for 1995 (13 Dec) 211

Chapter 2 Central Asia

  1. Introduction 212
  2. Sergei Kozlov, Central Asian Alliance-A Step Towards a Eurasian Alliance? Details of the Meetings of Three Presidents in Almaty (12 Jul) 217
  3. Yurii Kobishchanov, The Nations. Point of View. Earthquake Region In the Center of the World. Ethnic Problems of the Newly Independent States of Central Asia (30 Aug) 218

    Kyrgyzstan 226

    1. Leonid Kalashnikov, Kyrgyzstan. Passions Around Dual Citizenship (3 Feb) 226
    2. Boris Maynaev, On a Decree to Strengthen Law and Order (10 Feb) 227
    3. President of Kyrgyzstan Decree, On the Membership of the Security Council Attached to the President of the Kyrgyz Republic (11 Feb) 227
    4. Yevgenii Denisenko, A Second Switzerland or a Second Columbia? The Drug Trade in the Republic is Advancing on the Entire Front (21 Jul) 227
    5. Statement by the Government of Kyrgyzstan (5 Sep) 229
    6. President of the Kyrgyz Republic Decree, On Ensuring Political Stability in the Kyrgyz Republic and on Urgent Socio-Economic Measures (5 Sep) 230
    7. Akaev and the Language Issue in Government (7 Sep) 231

    Tadzhikistan 232

    1. Abdudzhalii Samadov, We Are Condemned to Success Only Together With Russia (3 Mar) 232
    2. Draft Constitution of the Republic of Tadzhikistan (13 Apr) 234
    3. Hajji Akbar Turadzhonzoda, Interview with the Leader of the "Official Tadzhik Opposition" (19 Apr) 245
    4. Lyubov Latypova, Cut Off From the Ruble: Russia is Holding Tadzhikistan on a Short Credit Leash. Why? (14 Jun) 247
    5. S. Kruglov, New Political Parties Being Created in the Republic but the Clans are Struggling for Power (6 Jul) 249
    6. State of Emergency Extended (19 Jul) 250
    7. Tadzhik Opposition Delegation Statement at the Inter-Tadzhik Nego- tiations (17 Aug) 251
    8. Oleg Panfilov, Who is Better-Rakhmonov or Abdulladzhanov? Russian Diplomacy as a Factor of the Pre-Election Campaign in Tadzhikistan (20 Aug) 253
    9. Rakhmonov Letter to the UN Security Council (6 Sep) 255


    1. B. Shikhmuradov, We Have Our Path to Democracy (Feb) 256
    2. Grigorii Kolodin, In a Civilized and Humane Manner. This is How Turkmenistan and Russia are Settling Questions of Dual Citizenship and Migration (21 Jun) 258
    3. Andrei Kniazev, City Residents Waiting in Bread Lines For Up to Five Hours. Turkmenbashi-A City Where Survival is Difficult (Aug) 259

    Uzbekistan 260

    1. Decree on Parliamentary Structure (13 Jan) 260
    2. President Islam Karimov, Speech on Uzbekistan and Russia (26 Jan) 261
    3. Rustam Usmanov, Will Central Asia Enter the Market Path? Uzbekistan at the Crossroads (Feb) 261
    4. Republic of Uzbekistan Law, On Bankruptcy (5 May) 263
    5. On Foreign Investments and Guarantees of the Activity of Foreign Investors (5 May) 273
    6. Republic of Uzbekistan Law, On Guarantees of the Citizens' Voter Rights (5 May) 278
    7. Republic of Uzbekistan Law, On Citizen's Appeals (6 May) 279
    8. The Criterion of Activity is Clarity of Purpose (31 May) 283
    9. Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Uzbekistan Resolution, On Increasing Resources for the Internal Convertibility of the National Currency (8 Nov) 287
    10. President of the Republic of Uzbekistan Decree, On the Basic Areas for Reinforcing the Incentive Role of Taxes in the Republic of Uzbekistan (30 Nov) 287

Chapter 3 Kazakhstan

  1. Cabinet Statement of 1994 Economic Policy (4 Feb) 289
  2. Nursultan Nazarbaev, We Shall Not Divide into "Ours" and "Theirs" (9 Feb) 291
  3. Gennadii Kulagin, Georgii Shmelev, Andrei Kozyrev Press Conference in Almaty (9 Feb) 295
  4. Nursultan Nazarbaev, Now He Is Keeping His Distance From Moscow (11 Feb) 296
  5. President Nursultan Nazarbaev, Interview on Visit to USA (19 Feb) 297
  6. Vladimir Ardaev, Nursultan Nazarbaev: "It Takes Two to Tango" (23 Feb) 298
  7. Lyubov Dobrota, Anatolii Akava, Sergei Nesterenko, Vladimir Li, The Parliamentary Elections Are Over. Now We Have to Sort Out Who Got Elected (10 Mar) 299
  8. Natalia Todorova, Central Electoral Commission Chairman is Satisfied with the Election Campaign (18 Mar) 302
  9. Okzhas Suleymenov, In International Kazakhstan People Have More Things in Common Than They Have Differences… (12 Mar) 303
  10. Vladimir Ardaev, A Kazakhstani Peasant Could Become An Owner. Sovkhoz Director Becomes Kulak Immediately (1 Apr) 306
  11. President of the Republic of Kazakhstan Decree, On Further Improve- ment of Land Cadastre (5 Apr) 307
  12. Sergei Volkov and Mikhail Ustiugov, It Seems the Asphalt Is Melting With the Last Snow. Whatever the Demand for Democracy- Such Will Be the Supply. A Dialogue (8 Apr) 308
  13. V. Kashirskii, Letter to the Editor. A Word About Nazarbaev (Apr) 312
  14. Sultan Sartaev, Only a Renewed Government Can Continue the Economic Reforms. Parliament Has Presented a Bill to the Executive (1 Jun) 313
  15. President of the Republic of Kazakhstan Decree, On Additional Measures to Ensure Legality and Law and Order (9 Jun) 314
  16. President of the Republic of Kazakhstan Decree, On Improvement of the Structure of the Organs of State Power and Administration and Reduced Spending on Their Upkeep (16 Jul) 317
  17. President of the Republic of Kazakhstan Decree, On Formation of the State Export-Import Bank of the Republic of Kazakhstan (16 Jul) 318
  18. P. Svoik, We Cannot Stop the Prices Until We Stop Monopolism (24 Aug) 319
  19. President of the Republic of Kazakhstan Decree, On the Creation of the State Development Bank of Kazakhstan (6 Sep) 323
  20. President of the Kazakhstan Republic, On Formation of the Republic Commission to Fight Corruption and Organized Crime (21 Sep) 325

Chapter 4 Transcaucasia
Introduction 326

    Armenia 328

    1. Gamlet Matevosyan, The Privatization Process Finally Has Begun. Levon TerPetrosyan Had to Turn to the Declaration of Independence (29 Jan) 328
    2. Levon Ter-Petrosyan, Interview (10 Feb) 329
    3. Armen Khanbabyan, The Armenian Economy is Hindered by the Creation of a National Army. The Head of the Cabinet Thinks That Ministers Should Not Be Envied (22 Feb) 330
    4. Shamiram Agabekyan, Armenia on the Threshold of Voucherization. Prime Minister Bagratyan Predicts Our Fate (5 Apr) 332
    5. Grant Bagratyan, Results of the Reform Encouraging (7 Aug) 335
    6. Vardan Arakelyan, Privatization is a Chance to get Rich (9 Aug) 339
    7. Ashot Aramyan, Stock Exchange "Bears," the Dollar at the 400 Mark, or a "Ram" in the Form of a Tomato (9 Aug) 342
    8. Levon Ter-Petrosyan, Speech at the United Nations General Assembly (1 Oct) 343

    Azerbaidzhan 347

    1. I Did Not Receive Instructions on Whom to Place my Bet Says Valter Shoniia, Russian Ambassador to Azerbaidzhan (19 Jan) 347
    2. Abulfaz Elchibey, Our Fate Was Decided by Russia, Turkey and Iran (10 Mar) 349
    3. Geydar Aliev, We Want One Thing-for the Truth to be Known (15 Jun) 350
    4. President of Azerbaidzhan Decree, Measures to Increase Social Protection of the Population and Financial Stabilization of the Economy (21 Jun) 353
    5. Elchin Suleyman, Farid Arifoglu, Entry and Exit Law Adopted (25 Jun) 355
    6. Sanobar Shermatova, Azerbaidzhan. Waiting for the Storm (28 Jul) 356
    7. Baku-1994. The First Half-Year. Economic Report (6 Aug) 358
    8. President of the Azerbaidzhan Republic Decree, On Measures to Intensify the Fight Against Crime and to Bolster Legality and Law and Order (12 Aug) 359

    Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict 361

    1. Levon Ter-Petrosyan, The Formation of the CIS Enabled Us to Avoid the "Yugoslav Scenario": Armenian President Levon Ter-Petrosyan Believes that Russia and the CSCE Should Consolidate Efforts for a Settlement of the Karabakh Conflict (12 Jan) 361
    2. Vladimir Kazimirov, "The Main Thing Is to Prevent Internationalization of the Conflict" (27 Jan) 365
    3. Tigran Liloyan, Agreement in Moscow on Nagorno-Karabakh (17 Aug) 368
    4. We Have Never Been Closer to Peace. Rasul Guliev, Chairman of the National Assembly of the Azerbaidzhan Republic, Hopes for a Speedy End to the Karabakh War (31 Aug) 369
    5. Armen Khanbabyan, The West Continues to be Afraid of Russian Peace- keepers Becoming Occupiers: Turkey's Policy on Cyprus Could be Beneficial to Stepanakert (6 Sep) 371
    6. Boris Vinogradov, Fire in Karabakh Not Yet Extinguished but Diplomats are Already Sharing the Glories of Peacemakers (10 Sep) 373
    7. Karem Baburyan, Interview (11 Sep) 374
    8. Boris Vinogradov, 3000 Peacekeepers Are Needed to Create Conditions for Normalization in Karabakh (9 Dec) 376

    Georgia 377

    1. Gamzakhurdia's Suicide Note (13 Jan) 377
    2. Charter of the Agrarian Party of Georgia (19 Jan) 377
    3. Social Democratic Party of Georgia, Who We Are and What We Want. Meet the Social Democrats (21 Jan) 379
    4. Shevardnadze and the Yeltsin Visit to Georgia. A TV Interview (10 Feb) 385
    5. Eduard Shevardadze, Interview (20 Feb) 387
    6. Republic of Georgia Law, On Firearms (15 Mar) 389
    7. Eduard Shevardnadze, Interview (10 Apr) 395
    8. Zaza Tsuladze, The Ice Has Begun to Break (20 Jun) 400
    9. Shevardnadze Issues Decree on Human Rights (5 Oct) 401
    10. Decree on Protecting Government Officials (13 Nov) 402
    11. Eduard Shevardnadze, Interview (14 Nov) 402
    12. Conflict in Abkhazia
    13. Taras Shamba, Abkhazia: Dead Season Over (10 Jan) 405
    14. Boris Vinogradov, Russia Takes On Mission as Chief Peacemaker in Georgia-Abkhazia Conflict (5 Apr) 409
    15. Besik Urigashvili, Expectations for Summer Vacation Season in Abkhazia Are Somewhat Premature Even in Light of Diplomatic Victories (7 Apr) 410
    16. Igor Lenskii, Abkhazia Chooses Freedom (29 Nov) 412

Bibliography 413
Glossary 415


  1. Names 416
  2. Subject 418
  3. Geography and Places 423
  4. Institutions 424


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