Preface vi

Tables viii

1 Patterns in Russian-American Economic Relations 1

2 From Commerce to Diplomacy, 1783-1814 5

3 The Northwest and the Politics of Commerce,1815-1824 17

4 The Rise and Fall of the Commercial Treaty,1832-1912 30

5 American Investment in Tsarist Russia, 1890-1914 46

6 War and Revolution, 1914-1918 58

7 Soviet Initiatives to Renew Economic Relations,1918-1923 71

8 Renewed Economic Relations, 1922-1930 86

9 Commerce and the Search for Security, 1930-1939 99

10 Enmity and Friendship in Peace and War,1939-1945 114

11 Cold War Freeze of Aid and Trade, 1945-1960 128

12 The Rise and Fall of Economic Detente, 1960-1980 152

13 From Economic Warfare to Trade Promotion, 1981-1988 176

14 Decade of Collaboration and Aid, 1988-1998 193

Notes 207

Selected Bibliography 247

Index 256



Unlike some monographs, a general survey requires the direct and indirect assistance of several institutions and numerous people. This is especially true of a text such as this one which covers more than one century and country. Endnotes acknowledge the help of hundreds of scholars, writers, and participants who have commented on some aspect of Russian-American economic relations. Here I have the pleasure of extending my thanks to those organizations and individuals who gave me immediate forms of assistance. Foremost is my appreciation for the help rendered by Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University which underwrote the project with a grant through the Fund for Professional Development. More subtle but nonetheless vital forms of support came from campus colleagues and administrators such as Paul Braim, Roger G. Campbell, James C. Cunningham, Glenn Dorn, Paul Edson, Ira D. Jacobson, Geoffrey Kain, and Robert Oxley. Three individuals read the entire manuscript and made valuable contributions in correcting the mechanics and improving the syntax of the text: Donna Langford, J. Roger Osterholm, and Peter von Wahlde. I am pleased and honored by the fact that each chapter had the benefit of revision based upon the review and suggestions of a scholar with a national reputation for research and publication in the era covered by that particular segment of the work. Naturally, I must assume final responsibility for the book's content, but I feel comfortable with that disclaimer after making changes suggested by David M. Griffiths, Mary E. Wheeler, Ann E. Healy, John P. McKay, Jeanette E. Tuve, Philip S. Gillette, Kurt S. Schultz, Frederick C. Adams, George C. Herring, Ralph B. Levering, Philip J. Funigiello, Walter LaFeber, and Marshall I. Goldman.

The audience for the book is twofold. First, teachers, professors and interested professionals without expertise in the field covered by the text may find the book a useful and convenient way of bolstering their knowledge. Second, the book is designed for use by students in survey courses on Russian history and economics, American history and economics, and Russian-American relations and foreign policy, respectively, The latter explains why I asked several students to read or participate in the preparation of the work: Matt Gerdon,Danek Krzyminski, Karen Magnussen, Beatrice Parker, and Patrick Rogers. A number of colleagues gave me their encouragement, knowledge, or assistance in locating information: Charles C. Hay, Eastern Kentucky University; Richard D. Burns, Regina Press; Michael J. Sherman and Robert F. Carberry, Flagler College; David T. Courtwright, University of North Florida; Mikhail Baskov, Moscow Bauman State Technical University; Andrew Farkas and Bruce Latimer, Carpenter Library, University of North Florida; Kathleen Citro, Christine Poucher, and Lynn Prine, Hunt Library, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University. Finally, Beth Dold, Carol Liptak, and Bev Terry provided clerical assistance or answered computer questions related to the preparation of the manuscript.

James K. Libbey



1 St. Petersburg Exports to the United States, 1783-1803 11

2 US Exports to Russia as Share of Total US Exports,1790-1809 13

3 US Trade with Russian America, 1805-1814 24

4 US Trade with Russia, 1812-1912 33

5 Key Goods Exported from Russia to the US,1821-1851 35

6 Key Goods Exported from the US to Russia,1821-1851 36

7 US Exports to Russia, 1885-1905 41

8 Russia's Balance of Trade, 1909 47

9 US Capital in Russia, 1906 49

10 US Trade with Russia, 1914-1917 62

11 US Trade with Soviet Russia, 1921-1941 75

12 USSR Foreign Trade, 1918-1938 87

13 US Exports of Farm Machinery to the USSR,1924-1933 90

14 Impact of Five Year Plan on USSR Purchases in the US, 1928-1930 96

15 US Trade with the USSR in 1940 118

16 Sample US Lend-Lease to USSR, 1941-1945 125

17 Sample Comparison of Soviet Trade with the West, 1947-1961 148

18 Sample Comparison of Soviet Trade with the West, 1962-1980 159

19 US Cereal and Other Exports to the USSR, 1972-1980 167

20 Top Ten US-USSR Trade Items in 1982 177

21 US Food and Other Exports to the USSR, 1981-1989 180

22 US Trade with USSR/Russia, 1981-1997 195

23 Top Ten Countries Investing in Russia, January 1997 201

24 Top Ten US-Russian Trade Items in 1996 Compared to Their Value in 1992 205