Preface xiv

Introduction xvi

1 Failure to Settle Lend-Lease Debts

Follow-up to US Request for USSR Lend-Lease Inventory. Secretary of State to Soviet Chargé. 18 February 1946 1

Soviet Response to US Inventory Request. Soviet Chargé to Secretary of State. 19 March 1946 2

US Embassy Personnel Share Lend-Lease Frustration with Press. US Press Report. 26 December 1946 3

US Ambassador Seeks "Urgent" Reply to Notes. Ambassador Smith to Foreign Minister Molotov. 31 December 1946 4

US Department of State Aide-memoire. To Soviet Embassy. 17 November 1947 5

Soviet Arguments for Canceling Lend-Lease Debts. Soviet Embassy Memorandum to US State Department. 16 December 1947 6

US Summary of Lend-Lease Discussions with Soviets. Internal State Department Memorandum. 9 May 1949 9

Negotiations over Return of US Ships by USSR. Meeting Between State Department and Soviet Representatives. 4 January 1949 10

Settlement for the Return of Some US Naval Ships by USSR. US-USSR Treaty. 27 September 1949 12

US Concern over Delay in Return of Ships. Department of State Press Release. 20 November 1950 14

US Rejects Soviet Offer of $240 Million for Settlement. Secretary of State to Soviet Chargé. 9 December 1950 14

USSR Official Press on the Lend-Lease Settlement. Pravda. 7 February 1951 16

Report on Soviet Refusal to Return Ships. US Press Report. 22 August 1951 20

Report on Lend-Lease Operations. US President to Congress. 3 October 1951 21

US Quest to Arbitrate Settlement. US Press Report. 10 January 1952 23

US Memorandum of Soviet-American Conversation. Confidential Record. 14 December 1953 24

Report on Lend-Lease Operations. US President to Congress. 31 December 1953 25

USSR Agrees to Return Some US Ships. Text of Agreement. 22 December 1954 27

USSR Agrees to Return Some More US Ships. Text of Agreement. 26 May 1955 29

Report on Lend-Lease Operations. US President to Congress. 31 December 1956 31

Report on Lend-Lease Operations. US President to Congress. 31 December 1960 36

US-USSR Agreement to Settle Lend-Lease. Text of Agreement. 18 October 1972 37


2 The Decline in Soviet-American Relations

Soviet Loan Request. Soviet Purchasing Chairman to FEA Chairman. 28 August 1945 41

Belated US Response to Soviet Loan Request. Secretary of State to Soviet Chargé. 21 February 1946 42

Soviet Response to US Credit Conditions. Soviet Chargé to US Secretary of State. 15 March 1946 44

US Reiterates Conditions for Credit to USSR. US Secretary of State to Soviet Embassy. 18 April 1946 45

USSR Requests Negotiations Focused on Credit. Soviet Ambassador to Acting US Secretary of State. 17 May 1946 47

US State Department Views Loan Negotiations not Possible. Memorandum to Assistant Secretary of State. 23 May 1946 48

US Indirect Aid to USSR Via UNRRA. Letter from Truman to House Speaker. 4 October 1945 50

Department of State Summary of UNRRA Operations. Congressional Testimony. 11 October 1945 51

Time Limitation on Lend-Lease Pipeline Shipments. Rider to Public Law 521. June 1946 54

US Apology to USSR for Termination of Agreement. Lend-Lease Administrator to Soviet Purchasing Director. 30 January 1947 54

USSR Requests US Uphold Agreement of 15 October 1945. Soviet Ambassador to US Assistant Secretary of State. 4 July 1947 55

Financial Effects of US Discrimination of Pipeline Agreement. Secretary of State to US Embassy. 6 August 1947 57

Effect of Pipeline Suspension on Interest Payments. Soviet Ambassador to Secretary of State. 2 July 1949 57

Text of Stalin's Election Speech. Pravda. 10 February 1946 59

US Embassy Evaluation of Stalin Speech. George F. Kennan to Secretary of State. 12 February 1946 66

USSR Suspicious of Outside World. George F. Kennan to Secretary of State. 20 March 1946 67

Winston Churchill's "Iron Curtain" Speech. Westminster College, Fulton, Missouri. 5 March 1946 70

Stalin on the Subject of Churchill's Speech. Interview with Pravda. 14 March 1946 77

Soviet Summary of US Ambassador Smith's Views. USSR Diplomats in Berlin to Molotov. 28 March 1946 80


3 The "Get Tough" Policy

Nationalist Chinese Concerns over USSR in Manchuria. Special US Envoy to President Truman. 9 February 1946 83

Soviet Forces Continue to Hold Manchuria. Counselor of Embassy to Secretary of State. 26 February 1946 85

Soviets Explain Delay in Withdrawal from Manchuria. Pravda. 27 February 1946 87

Soviets Leaving Manchuria. US Press Report. 9 March 1946 88

Soviet Removal of "War Booty" from Manchuria. Statement Issued by US Department of State. 1 March 1946 89

Manchurian Problem and its Impact on Chinese Government. US Counselor of China Embassy to Secretary of State. 11 March 1946 90

Scramble for Manchuria by Nationalists and Communists. US Consul to Secretary of State. 26 March 1946 91

Final Report of Yenan Observer Group. Memorandum from Observer Group to George C. Marshall. 15 April 1946 92

Communist Chinese Penetration of Manchuria. Marshall Memorandum. 17 April 1946 94

US Opposes Soviet Troops in Iran. Internal State Department Memorandum. 27 December 1945 95

US Commission Proposal for Iran Raises Issues. US Ambassador in Iran to Secretary of State. 10 January 1946 96

USSR Responds to Iranian Complaint. USSR Ambassador to UN Security Council President. 24 January 1946 98

US Resolution for Soviet-Iranian Negotiations. Internal Notes of US Delegation to UN. 30 January 1946 100

Text of US Note on Iran to USSR. Note from American Chargé to Soviet Government. 6 March 1946 102

Soviet Negotiations with Iran. Remarks by Gromyko to UN SecurityCouncil. 26 March 1946 104

US Seeks Confirmation of Soviet Withdrawal by UN. Stettinius to Byrnes. 29 March 1946 106

Successful Conclusion of Soviet-Iranian Negotiations. Letter from Iranian Representative to UN Security Council. 15 April 1946 108

US-USSR Positions on Turkish Straits. Notes Exchanged by the Two Countries. 7 and 19 August 1946 109

US Military May Need to Protect Turkey. Memo from Departments of State, Navy, and War. 15 August 1946 113

US Military Assessment of Turkish Straits Issue. Joint Chiefs of Staff to Secretaries of Army and Navy. 23 August 1946 115

Soviet Position on Turkish Straits. Transmission of Soviet Note to US Secretary of State. 26 September 1946 117

US Reinforces Straits Position with USSR. US Message to Soviet Foreign Office. 8 October 1946 122

Summary of Turkish Straits Issue, 1945-1946. Briefing Paper for President Harry S. Truman. November 1946 123

The Novikov Telegram. Nikolai Novikov to Viacheslav Molotov. 27 September 1946 125

A US Critique of "Get Tough" Policy. Speech at Madison Square Garden. 12 September 1946 133


4 Collapse of Collaboration

Reasons Why the USSR Should Not Join IMF and IBRD. Internal Memorandum of USSR Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 29 December 1945 139

George F. Kennan's "Long Telegram." Kennan to US Secretary of State. 22 February 1946 140

Baruch Plan for Control of Atomic Energy. UN Atomic Energy Commission. 14 June 1946 150

Gromyko's Response to the Baruch Plan. UN Atomic Energy Commission. 19 June 1946 156

US Termination of Reparations. General Clay to Major General Echols. 2 May 1946 162

End of US Reparations and the USSR. US Political Adviser for Germany to US Secretary of State. 6 May 1946 163

State Department Endorsement of Clay's Decision. Dean G. Acheson to James F. Byrnes. 9 May 1946 165

Soviet View of US End to Reparations. Memorandum to SVAG Political Adviser. 29 May 1946 169

US Policy on Germany. Radio Address by Secretary of State Byrnes. 6 September 1946 171

Soviet Reaction to Byrnes's Stuttgart Speech. Classified Message from Novikov to Molotov. 10 September 1946 176

Economic Fusion of US and British Zones. Memorandum of Agreement. 2 December 1946 179

Draft Treaty on German Disarmament. US Proposal to Council of Foreign Ministers. 29 April 1946 182

Byrnes-Molotov Conversation about Proposed German Treaty. Diary of V.M. Molotov. 28 April 1946 185

USSR Statement on US Proposed German Disarmament Treaty. USSR Foreign Minister Molotov to Council of Foreign Ministers. 9 July 1946 187

State of US-USSR Relations Spring 1946. Record of Conversation between Byrnes and Molotov. 5 May 1946 191


5 Emergence of the Containment Policy

Great Britain Ends Support for Greece and Turkey, 2 Documents. Aide-Memoire from British to US Government. 21 February 1947 194

Preparation of Truman's Speech. Memorandum for the File. 12 March 1947 198

The Truman Doctrine. President Truman's Speech to the US Congress. 12 March 1947 201

Congressional Legislation to Aid Greece and Turkey. United States Statute. 22 May 1947 205

Need for European Recovery. Speech by Acheson to the Delta Council. 8 May 1947 209

Economic Crisis in Europe. Internal Memo, US Department of State. 27 May 1947 214

The Marshall Plan. George C. Marshall's Harvard Commencement Address. 5 June 1947 216

Molotov Criticizes Marshall Plan. Speech at Paris Conference. 2 July 1947 218

Report on Molotov's Critique of Marshall Plan. Bevin to US Secretary of State. 3 July 1947 221

Record of Stalin's Conversation with Czech Officials. Confidential Minutes of the Meeting. 9 July 1947 222

The Containment Policy Defined. Article in Foreign Affairs. July 1947 225


6 The Soviet Response to the Containment Policy

Background on Soviet Takeover of Hungary. Internal State Department Memorandum. 1 July 1947 236

US Protests Soviet Takeover in Hungary. US State Department to ACC for Hungary. 11 June 1947 239

Soviet Reply to US Protest. Note from General Sviridov to General Weems. 14 June 1947 241

US Protests Soviet Treatment of Petkov. US Embassy in Moscow to Soviet Foreign Office. 23 August 1947 242

USSR Response to US Protest. Soviet Foreign Office to US Embassy in Moscow. 25 August 1947 243

Additional Soviet Response to US Protests. Andrei Ya. Vyshinskii to Walter B. Smith. 6 September 1947 244

CPSU Politburo Directive Relating to Eastern Europe. USSR Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 14 October 1947 246

The Soviet World View. Zhdanov Speech Before Founding Session of Comintern. 22 September 1947 247

Cominform Declaration. Pravda. 5 October 1947 256

Preliminary US Response to Cominform. US Embassy to State Department. 6 October 1947 259

"Molotov Plan" and Yugoslavia. US Ambassador in Yugoslavia to State Department. 7 August 1947 261

Tito's Displeasure with USSR-Yugoslav Economic Relations. Record of Conversation Between Tito and Lavrentiev. 10 March 1948 263

Communist Information Bureau Expels Yugoslavia. Pravda. 29 June 1948 265

Potential Impact of Tito's Expulsion from Cominform. Political Adviser Trieste to US Secretary of State. 29 June 1948 271

US Official Response to Expulsion of Tito from Cominform. US Secretary of State to Diplomatic Missions. 30 June 1948 272

Tito Stands Firm in Yugoslavia. US Ambassador in Yugoslavia to Secretary of State. 30 June 1948 273

USSR Communist Party Sets Stage for Comecon's Creation. Politburo Session. 23 December 1948 275

Charter of Comecon. For the Signatories. 14 December 1959 277


7 Collapse of Soviet-American Trade

Second Decontrol Act. United States Congress. 15 July 1947 279

Summary of US Export Controls. US Senate Foreign Relations Committee. 1947 282

Percentage of US Exports Under Control. US Department of Commerce. 1947 283

Recommendations for US Control of Exports to USSR. Commerce Department to National Security Council. 14 November 1947 285

US Policy on Trade with USSR and Eastern Europe. State Department Policy Planning Paper. 26 November 1947 286

US Control of Exports to USSR and Eastern Europe. US National Security Council to President. 17 December 1947 292

US Products to Europe Require Licenses. Press Release from US Department of Commerce. 15 January 1948 293

Letter from Czech President. To Communist Party Presidium. 24 February 1948 294

Reply by the Czechoslovak Communist Party Presidium. To the Letter of President Benes". 25 February 1948 296

Immediate Response of US to Czechoslovak Crisis. US Ambassador in Prague to Secretary of State. 26 February 1948 298

President Truman Reacts to Events in Czechoslovakia. Speech Before Joint Session of Congress. 17 March 1948 300

Background on the Czechoslovak Crisis. Ambassador Steinhardt to Secretary of State Marshall. 30 April 1948 303

Objectives of US Trade with Eastern Europe. Commerce Department Report. 4 May 1948 309

Export Control Act. United States Congress. 26 February 1949 314

Soviet Critique of US Economic Warfare. Pravda. 12 March 1949 317

Formation of CoCom. Communication within Economic Cooperation Administration. 25 November 1949 318

Decision to Keep CoCom Deliberations Secret. Telegram from US Secretary of State to Certain Diplomatic Posts. 15 February 1950 320

Problems Creating CoCom's Embargo List. Secretary Acheson to US Embassy in UK. 22 August 1950 321

Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act. United States Congress. 26 October 1951 324

Battle Act Implemented. Draft Executive Order to Implement Act. 9 October 1951 327

US Informs CoCom About Battle Act. Under Secretary Webb to CoCom Countries. 5 December 1951 328

Soviet Response to Battle Act. Literaturnaya gazeta. 11 December 1951 330

Trade Agreements Extension Act. United States Congress. 16 June 1951 332

Soviets Respond to End of Soviet-American Trade Agreement. Pravda. 20 August 1951 336

Closing Loophole in Trade Restrictions with USSR. President Harry Truman to Secretary of Treasury Snyder. 17 January 1953 337

Two World Markets and the Crisis of Capitalism. Remarks of Joseph Stalin. Fall 1952 338


8 The Berlin Blockade

Berlin Air Corridors. Allied Control Council. 22 November 1945 339

Adjustments in German Bizonia Organization. US Political Adviser for Germany to Secretary of State. 3 January 1948 342

USSR Rejects US Reform of German Currency. US Political Adviser for Germany to Secretary of State. 1 February 1948 345

USSR Protests Western Violations of Potsdam Agreements. Message from Soviet to US Government. 13 February 1948 348

Creation of Trizonia. Communiqué by UK, US, France, and Benelux. 6 March 1948 349

USSR Protests London Conference. Statement by Marshal Sokolovsky. 20 March 1948 351

Currency Reform in the Western Zones of Germany. US State Department Internal Memorandum. 4 June 1948 352

Break-up of the Allied Kommandatura in Berlin. Ambassador Murphy to Secretary of State Marshall. 17 June 1948 354

Start of the Berlin Blockade. Telegram from US Political Adviser to US Secretary of State. 19 June 1948 355

The Berlin Airlift Begins. Telegram Between US Zonal Commander and War Department. 27 June 1948 357

Arguments for US Staying in Berlin. Ambassador Murphy to Secretary of State Marshall. 26 June 1948 358

Formal US Protest over Soviet Blockade of Berlin. Note from US Secretary of State to Soviet Ambassador. 6 July 1948 360

USSR Response to US Protest over Berlin Blockade. Note from Panyushkin to Marshall. 14 July 1948 363

Stalin's Views on Berlin Crisis. Interview by French, UK, and US Representatives. 3 August 1948 366

US Requests UN Security Council Review Soviet Blockade. Note from US State Department to UN Secretary General. 29 September 1948 372

Evolving Concept of NATO. Meeting Between Danish and US Officials. 3 January 1949 374

Formation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. The North Atlantic Treaty. 4 April 1949 376

First of Jessup-Malik Talks on Lifting Blockade. Internal Memorandum, US Department of State. 15 February 1949 379

Jessup-Malik Conversations Produce Agreement. Internal Memorandum, US Department of State. 27 April 1949 381

Berlin Blockade Ends. Announcement by US Secretary of State. 12 May 1949 384

US Preparations for Possible Renewal of Berlin Blockade. US Department of Defense to National Security Council. 1 June 1949 385

Soviets Respond to Formation of West Germany. Politburo Minutes. 30 September 1949 389

Soviet Response to Creation of Federal Republic of Germany. Soviet Note Forwarded to US State Department. 1 October 1949 390

Formation of (East) German Democratic Republic. US Military Commander in Berlin to State Department. 6 October 1949 393


Chronological List of Documents 395

List of Abbreviations 404

Selected Bibliography 406

Notes 415

Indexes 444

Biography 462